Pharmacology Antibiotics

 

Pharmacology Review Sheets: Antibiotics, p.1Sulfonamides

Common Properties- Structure: Substitutions put ~ ring

 activity- P-aminobenzoic stinging (PABA) analog- Competitively inhibits pteroic sharp synthetase- Absolutely specifically toic- Bacteriostatic- !eeds time to ta”e issue (effects aren#t immediate)- $esistance

 

 PABA reduction by evaporation-

 upta”e of sulfonamides-

 affinity of pteroic acid synthetase for enzyme- Spectrum: %&’s nocardiosis chlamydial infections- istribution

 *ets into C!S (flat +ithout inflammation)- oesn#t pass prostate +ell because it#s acidic- ,etabolism and cretion- Parent or acetylated derivative ecreted in the urine- Adverse movables– rug Allergy: Stevens-.ohnson#s syndrome (necrotizing forfeiture of s”in)

 Crystaluria (esp/ +ith older sulfonamides)- 0ernicterus: yello+ing of fingernails and sclera potential neurological symptoms

D!”# give to women in $

rd

 three months, nursing mothers, neonates

– *1P2 eficiency: 2emolytic anemia- isplacement of drugs (verbal antibiotics methotreate) from albuminCotrimoazole (Bactrim

®

): Sulfamethoazole 3 trimethoprim (+or”ing synergistically)- Synergism: &rimethoprim inhibits dihydrofolate reductase4 relatively selectively toic (bacterial affinity allo+s election)- ‘n general Cotrimoazole (Bactrim) has

 Potency

 Spectrum

 $esistance- %sed in spite of %&’s $espiratory5ear infections due to 2/ influenzae S/ pneumoniae PCP &ooplasmosis ,alaria- Problems: Crystaluria megaloblastic anemia in those +ith folate deficiency contraindicated in pregnant mothers b5c of possible induction of folate shortage

P h a r m a c o % i n e t i c sDrug !ame &se’Spectrum Admin’Absorption Distribution (etabolism’)*cretion Adverse )ffects

&riple sulfa$apid absorption

 ↓

 ris” of crystaluria

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