Pharmacology Analgesics and Anesthetics


Pharmacology Review Sheets: Analgesic Drugs, p./

Central Analgesics: 0pioids Strong analgesics2

1ommon properties and other of the whole information

– 4tructure: %l&aloids; methyl dispose critical for function; <-glucuronide is acti”e- Pharmaco&inetics:- %dministration!%#sorption: 4u#cutaneous preferred; vocal preps e’ist, #ut are reser”ed since special cases (i$e$ cancer patients) and are inadequately a#sor#ed orally- 6uration of enacting: 6uration of morphine is = hrs  #ut conducive to cases of se”ere pain it may #e ~ amount than that$ ”er time,


 can de”elop$- 5ses: 4e”before pain (#ut patient ill ha”e consciousness deficits);


 to #e used in favor of pain that can #e handled ith peripheral analgesics- %ctions:- n spinal cord, laminae / and //:


 inhi#its deliver of su#stance P;


 skirmish may cause tolerance- 3halamus: Morphine in.ected in this place can result in total #ody anesthesia- eticular production: /n.ections in the raphe nuclei, peri”entricular grizzled, periaqueductal gray can result in gross amount #ody anesthesia- >rontal corte’: Produces sleep, euphoria; #lunts emotional response to rack;

 threshold and su#.ecti”e sufferance to pain- +ffects:- 0eurologic- %nalgesia- 4edation!repose- +uphoria (?@-A@B); 6ysphoria (patient feels


) in 8@-C@B-

 14> crushing (

 /1P) due to expansion of cere#ral “essels, in gyration secondary to



$ 3herefore, ith cases of front part trauma, don’t use opioids unless you ha”e to$- Miosis (pinpoint pupils) suitable to morphine’s action on the +dinger-Destphal nucleus$

3eperidine is the only opioid that doesn4t be the subject of this effect

$- espiratory system: loc&s 1


 battle in the medulla; respiration is shalloer and sloer during the time that a result$- Dith larger doses, breathing #ecomes 9+E shallo (C-7!min); the peripheral chemoreceptors are the sole reason for any respiration$


3ost vulgar

 cause of death from morphine o”erdose is respiratory failure$- G/ written discourse: Morphine interacts ith


-receptors in the take out the bowels of all (


 costiveness; peristalsis actually stops)$ ’ ith FMM (mil& of magnesia)$

$0 %0!&RA$C&

– 5rinary portion: %cti”ates detrusor muscle, #ut constricts the sphincter (to this degree, you ant to urinate, #ut you can’t$ 4uc&H)- ther movables– 1ough suppression (antitussi”e), #ecause the center mediating cough is ne’t to the respiratory center in the medulla;


 is used since an antitussi”e (see chart #elo)- 9omiting  Morphine has a 8@-C2B reprove of “omiting; Pentazocine is associated ith “omiting in C2-7@B- *istamine deliver (

morphine, curare

): May result in teasing desire, red flares (thus these are

contraindicated in asthmatics

); Fformication  feeling of ants craling on one’s s&in

 3olerance: eco”era#le effect ith increased dose- Dith morphine, there is


 duration of effect ith employment o”er tme$- 3olerance does


 grovelling addiction, so don’t hold dosage #ac& female of the domestic fowl you need to use morphine$- 3olerance is a postsynaptic marvel (there is a










 efflu’)$ Gene acti”ation may in addition #e in”ol”ed$




%here is no tolerance to pupillary movables miosis2, 5″ effects costiveness,

muscle tone2, and histamine efficiency. Sounds li)e a good 6uestion to me7

– 6rug reliance: 6efined #y the folloing:- ”erpoering yearn for and need to get it using


 method(s) possi#le- 3olerance- Psychic prop: the addict li&es it- Physical buttress: there are ithdraal symptoms ith a#stinence (ith opioids these pea& at 8C hrs)- +mesis, qualm, diarrhea, hot flashes,

 #ody temperature,

 respiratory rate,

 systolic P, Fgooseflesh, mydriasis, dehydration- 5se: Moderated #y the 50 F4tep scheme$ 5se peripheral analgesics first, then loer vigor central analgesics, then higher and higher power central analgesics$- 6rug classes (#ased up~ the body addiction)  on’t #e in c~tinuance the e’am, #ut here beneficial to completeness- /: 1an’t #e used at tot~y- //: 1an #e used, #ut there’s a richly a#use potential- ///, /9, 9: 1an #e used, loer a#conversion to an act potentials from ///

 9- 1ontraindications:- %sthmatics, #ecause of histamine absolution associated ith morphine$- *ypothyroidism: 1auses stupor, coma, apnea- 1hronic adrenocortical insufficiency: 1auses lethargy, coma, apnea- *epatic insufficiency: 1auses stupor, coma, apnea- M% inhi#itor appliance- Potency:

8entanyl 9 3orphine 9 3ethadone 9 Codeine 9 3eperidine 9 Propo-yphene 9 Dipheno-ylate

(hich has nay effect)- 6uration of action:

3ethadone 9 3orphine 9 3eperidine

 (shortest personation oral)

 9 8entanyl

 (shortest continuation o”erall)

Incidents will yet lighten kidney memory to the room investments they actuate on a pharmacokinetic inhalation at religious rite.

Both comments and pings are currently closed.