In his June 14 consign to the nation, President Obama attributed Omar Mateen’s bear down upon on patrons of Orlando, Fla.’s, Pulse nightclub to “homegrown extremism,” statement “we currently do not have any information to indicate that a strange terrorist group directed the attack.”
It is a terrific thing to misunderstand one’s arch-fiend. so deeply.
While Obama acknowledged that the Islamic State has called in the place of attacks around the world against “spotless civilians,” he suggested these calls were occasional, emphasizing that Mateen was a “~ly actor” and “an angry, disturbed, precarious young man” susceptible to being radicalized “excessively the Internet.”
It is a horrid thing to misunderstand one’s adversary so deeply. The doctrine of jihad invoked ~ dint of. terrorist groups is an institution by a long history, grounded in legitimate precedent going back to the time of Muhammad.
Militants who invoke the doctrine of jihad follow principles influenced by Islamic law. The point to have ~ing grasped is that the doctrinal ground of jihad generates conditions that can incite “bottom up” terrorism, which does not necessity to be directed by jihadi organizations.
When the Ottoman Caliphate entered World War I in 1914, it issued every official fatwa calling upon Muslims in every place to rise up and fight the “infidels.” In 1915, a besides detailed ruling was issued, entitled “A Universal Proclamation to All the People of Islam.”
This assistant fatwa gave advice on the methods of jihad, distinguishing three modes of hostilities: “jihad by bands,” which we would today demand guerrilla warfare; “jihad by campaigns,” that refers to warfare using armies; and “individual jihad.”
The fatwa cited approvingly at the same time that an example of individual jihad the 1910 murderous assault of Boutros Ghaly, a Christian first-rate minister of Egypt (and grandfather of forgoing U.N. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghaly), at the hands of Ibrahim Nassif al-Wardani, a Muslim take a degree in pharmacology who had been educated in Lausanne, Paris, and London.
This Ottoman fatwa cited precedents from the life of Muhammad in quest of each of the three modes of contest. To support individual jihad, it referenced three instances at the time that companions of Muhammad conducted assassinations of non-Muslims. Two of these involved attacks attached Jews that were personally instigated ~ dint of. Muhammad.
When the Islamic State issued a style for Muslims around the world to mount up and kill their neighbors, it was invoking the individual prevailing style of jihad. This mode relies on the teaching that when Muslim lands are attacked or occupied through infidel armies, jihad becomes farḍ al-‘ayn, an “individual obligation,” which a Muslim have power to act upon without needing to approach under anyone else’s command.
This groundwork of individual obligation has been much emphasized by jihadi clerics. Abdullah Azzam wrote in his influential tract Join the Caravan, “There is agreement … that then the enemy enters an Islamic disembark or a land that was one time part of the Islamic lands, it is coercive … to go forth to face the antagonist.”
It was undoubtedly in response to this principle that Omar Mateen went forth to despatch Americans. In line with this, Mateen reported to his victims that his storm was in retaliation for Americans bombing Afghanistan. By this intellect, it was America’s military gesticulation against a Muslim country — the native land of origin of Mateen’s line of ancestors — that justified an act of individual jihad.
Preventing that will be “lone wolf” attacks requires the disruption of the Islamic doctrine that underpins these acts and legitimizes them in the eyes of numerous Muslims. Teachers and preachers in Islamic institutions athwart America must openly reject the tenet of farḍ al-‘ayn in chronicle to U.S. military action.
They strait to teach their congregants that this precept does not apply, that anyone who uses it to make trial to legitimize his or her personal jihad is acting against God’s laws and that no martyr’s paradise awaits them.
At the same time, U.S. homeland confidence agencies need to closely watch and admonisher any Muslim teacher who promotes this opinion, which, once it is taken up~ board and applied against a race, will lead to acts of jihadi terrorism as surely as night follows set time.
During his June 14 observation, Obama defended his refusal to use the phrase “radical Islam” in relationship with terrorism, asking, “What exactly would using this label complete?”
The answer is simple. It choose be difficult to elicit the cooperation of Muslim conscientious leaders in discrediting the Islamic principle at the heart of America’s homegrown government by terror epidemic when President Obama himself is disinclined to acknowledge that doctrine matters — they can simply point to him and diminish.
Mark Durie is an Anglican minister, a Shillman-Ginsburg Writing Fellow at the Middle East Forum, and former of The Third Choice: Islam, Dhimmitude and Freedom.
This critical instant first appeared in the Washington Examiner.
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