Mental Illness: An Historical Perspective

Early human beings meditation that mental illnesses were triggered by supernatural forces such as demons, in the manner that a consequence they used to try to restoration them through very aggressive and beastly treatments. Among them, a common wont was trephining: stone tools were used to put in order a hole in the skull because it was believed that this cleft would allow the evil spirits causing the distemper to run away, thus healing the diligent.

In Ancient Mesopotamia, doctors-priests treated intellectual illnesses through religious rituals since they believed that they were a character of punishment inflicted by supernatural forces because of committing sins. Also ancient Persians believed that intellectual problems were triggered by evil that exceeds the laws of nature beings and they utilized invocations, exorcisms, charms, amulets and prayers to try to remedy illnesses of unknown origin.

So all ancient civilizations “agreed” in attributing intellectual illnesses to supernatural wills and it was no other than between the 5th and the 3rd centuries bC that Hippocrates, a Greek medical man, developed the idea that these kinds of problems were caused ~ means of natural factors occurring in the human visible form, specifically by an imbalance of the four pure fluids flowing inside it (1-fiery fellow, 2-phlegm, 3-bile and 3-disastrous bile).

Through the Medieval times, these “ imbalances” were treated through laxatives and bleeding, that it was reflection were the only possible ways to return “equilibrium”.

Generally, the custody of the mentally invalid people was left to the clan: the first mental hospital was determined up in Baghdad only in 792 aC.

At that time in China, like in great number other countries, mental illness in human being of the members of the line of ancestors was considered to be an disrepute for the whole group and the masses affected by these kinds of problems were concealed through their relatives. In Greece, in greatest part of the cases they were lost.

The very first  private madhouses were collection up by clergymen, however asylums were regularly established sole starting from the 16th century; in these places patients believed inhumane treatments: for example, an reciprocation of ice and cold water was used to matted their minds with the hope of mild them.

In 1792, an important refuge reform was introduced by Philippe Pinel (in Paris) and these kinds of abuses were eliminated. At the commencement of the XIX century,  humanitarian movements quarrel to improve living conditions inside asylums, started to be ~ed both in Europe and in the US.

Biomedical discoveries played a having life role in making people understand that ideal illnesses had nothing to do through a wrong morality or with moral depravity and that medicine was the simply way to treat these kinds of patients.

In the far advanced 1800s, the development of psychoanalysis carried off by Sigmund Freud, an Austrian neurologist, represented a gigantic step forward since it opened diverse doors on the human mind and the duration of unconscious elements that our conscious “side” translates into symbols, that destitution to be interpreted.

At the sort time some particular treatments for mental illnesses were developed, such as electroconvulsive therapy, pharmacology and surgery in the place of psychiatric problems. All of them were based attached a biological explanation of psychological problems. Shock therapy, malevolence of controversial points of view, is always utilized today when the patient is not responding to somewhat other cure. When this therapy was not potent, psychosurgery was the alternative. In 1935, in Portugal, Egas Moniz performed the earliest lobotomy but years later it was realized that this description of intervention deeply affected the mental ability of the people undergoing it.

Incredible improvements be favored with been carried out in the utmost decades, but I believe there is stationary huge margin for improvements under divers aspects.

I believe that defining and treating mental illness has been so controversial as both elements are mainly affected by cultural norms, values and beliefs that be the subject of varied a lot over time.

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