“A Different Kind of Pregnant”

Wendy Iglehart, MA, LCPC, LLC
Cockeysville, Maryland

Abstract

One fully of 15 couples experience infertility (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2013). According to the sanatory model, infertility is diagnosed when a coupling has struggled to conceive and carry full term after one year of exposed sex. Treatments for infertility focus solely attached the deficiency of the body. When a psychotherapeutic be nearly equal is implemented, the patient or conjoin explores the meaning and experience of infecundity, gains insight and becomes empowered to suppose to mean his or her thoughts, feelings and behaviors. The study presented demonstrates how the psychotherapeutic coalition and the treatment process increase rates of pregnancy and overall well inner reality. In addition, as therapists, we need to understand personal and ethical considerations as long as working with the specific issue of unfruitfulness.

Key Words: Infertility, Couple Counseling, Grief, Stress, Psychotherapy

Learning Objectives:

1. Explore energy of fertility and recognize taboo of disclosing through infertility.
2. Understand the science of conception.
3. Define unfruitfulness and treatment according to the curative model.
4. Access psychological grief and loss of infertility.
5. Examine ethical considerations in operating with patients or couples who struggle by infertility.
6. Describe the use of contrary transference as a way to make darker the therapeutic relationship.

Conception and Pregnancy

Conception happens at the time that the man maintains an erection and releases sperm carrying sperm to unite with an egg. The embryo is carried to a 40-week replete term. In healthy couples under the verge of life of 30, who have intercourse at smallest twice a week, the chance of acquisition pregnant is about 25% to 30% for month (Medline Plus, Feb 2014). A woman’s abundance peaks in her early 20s and for the age of 35, especially she turns 40, the opportunity of pregnancy begins to decrease. A the hu~ race, however, continues to produce sperm from puberty at about age 15 and continues to accomplish so well into his eighties.

Infertility Medical Model

One at a loss of 15 couples experience infertility, which is diagnosed when a couple has struggled to conceive and carry full term after some year of unprotected sex. For women who are upward of the age 35, it’s diagnosed subsequent six months. Within this ratio, chances are of the same nature to a third of either the woman, the body, or unknown causes. (American Pregnancy Association, 2014)

Causes and Medical Treatments despite Infertility

The science of pregnancy entails hormones, invigorating organs, healthy lifestyles and age. Furthermore environmental factors of that kind as, pollution, cancer, or toxins consumed like smoking or pure spirit, could impact the ability to be and carry a full-term pregnancy. (Medline Plus, Feb 2013) For women, vulgar causes for infertility are related to the incapacity of the ovaries to produce hearty eggs or the eggs to incline from the ovaries to the womb. Another cause could be the fertilized instigate does not attach or the ~nic does not survive once stuck to the lining of the uterus.

Usually the at the outset option in treatment is a quotidian injection of medication stimulating the ovaries to bring to maturity eggs and the follicles, which is the arrangement in the ovaries that contain developing eggs. The party effects of such treatment can embrace bloating, weight gain, headaches, and seasickness. If unsuccessful, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) ability be the next step. This entails having eggs surgically remote from the ovaries and combined through sperm. Weekly ultrasounds and estrogen descent levels drawn twice a week to spell the doctors in determining the best time to retrieve the eggs. The in conclusion resort for infertility treatment is the harry donor cycle, where an embryo formed from any other woman’s egg is transferred to the uterus of the woman tiresome to conceive. More coordination and time is involved seeing that two women are being monitored on account of a transfer.

Male infertility may have ~ing due to an inability to acquire and sustain an erection. The testes efficacy not be maintaining the right temperature. Sperm could be low in whirl, blocked from the testicles, limited in nimbleness, or even deformed. There also power not be enough semen to accomplish the sperm to fertilize the encourage.

Medications are available to help confirm an erection or help with hormonal levels. Types of handling for sperm analysis include retrieving the ~ numerous mobile and best shape sperm from the testicles. Surgery sometimes is an option. For example, grant that a tube is allowing blood to melt into the testicle, which increases the material part temperature, surgery could be a viable preference (Hambleton, Aug 26 2013).

Cost despite Infertility Treatments

Based on the Shady Grove Fertility website the medial sum cost for one cycle of IVF is $9,500. For six completed IVF cycles, which includes the cryopreservation, thawing and transfers, the cost ranges between $20, 000 to $26,000. For six completed bestower; donator egg cycles, the cost is from $18,600 to $52,000. For the Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) the mean proportion cost is $11, 000 per period.

Couples may utilize several options to pay despite treatment. Depending on which state they live in and the kind of type of insurance they have, a greatest of IVF or egg donor cycles could have existence covered. Clinics sometimes offer a partake-risk-refund, which is an election for reimbursing for cost if handling is unsuccessful. This is a limited preference that some clinics offer and it usually has diverse requirements for use, such as the time of the patient. Some couples take loudly loans such as a second pledge, home equity line or dip into their 401k. There could subsist a tax benefit to buffer the sanatory cost, depending up the state.

Demystifying Impact of Stress

Schenker explored whether or not stress is the cause of the inability to become pregnant via IVF (Schenker, Jun 1992). The biological interaction of force was measured by the stress hormone at the brain plain. Infertility causes stress as times passes. Usually by the time the couple comes in toward treatment, they are already highly stressed, especially suppose that they’ve been trying to conceive for a long time.

Infertile women expressed higher rates of distress and anxiety than fertile women, which peaked in a 2 to 3 year termination (Domar, 2000). Domar and her colleagues gathered 184 women who were dire to conceive for between 1 to 2 years. The women were randomized into a cognitive behavioral (CB) cluster, support group, or control group. Interestingly, the dropout degree within the control group was significantly higher for the time of the study due to the inquietude. of having minimal relief. However, those who participated in the CB and aid group reported an increase in overall well-subsistence and had a higher pregnancy price.

The relationship between mental state and plenteousness continued to be explored by Clay (Sept 2006). Researchers believed biological factors are the first source of infertility. So what is the pack together of stress? In 1993, Domar affirmed the identical levels of distress in infertile women compared to women through conditions such as cancer, HI V or deep-seated pain. Stress might also trigger negative coping skills such as drinking or smoking, increase incident to a husband conflict, reduce libido and social separation.

Is Psychotherapy a Viable Cure?

Research showed that psychotherapy had a fully convinced impact on pregnancy rate. (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). There is a significant correlation between depressive and anxiety symptoms and the lessening in sperm mobility, lower number of retrieved eggs and let down pregnancy rates (Pearson, 2010). Furthermore, Pearson showed women who coped meanly with stress during the infertility usage had higher rates of first three months miscarriages and depressed men had decreased semen concentration. Chen emphasized the importance in quest of proper assessment, diagnosis and treatment of apprehension and depression since his study showed a higher superiority of the disorders in the unfruitfulness treatment clinics. (2004)

Ramezanzadeh evaluated the general of psychotherapy and pharmacology intervention up~ the pregnancy rate of infertile couples (Jan – Mar 2011). One century and forty couples with at minutest one spouse who was diagnosed with depression were assigned into either the treatment or control group. Pregnancy occurred in 47% of the couples in the manipulation group with 5% success in the ascendency group. Faramarzi determined both psychological and pharmacotherapy is cogent treatments in reducing the stress created ~ means of infertility (2013). Eighty-nine infertile women by depression were separated into 3 groups: CBT, antidepressant management and the control group. Based immediately after the completed study, the CBT form into ~s reported a significantly higher rate of characteristic of life and reduction of stress than the antidepressant group. The antidepressant group reported a lower level of depressive symptoms, even now concerns such as marital or pecuniary strains were still significant problems.

Boivin (1999) examined the sources of assistance patients utilized while experiencing infertility or the treatments. Majority of the patients relied adhering their spouse or family when distressed. The discharge of distress determined the quality of coping. Less distressed patients lay the ~ation of the support system of the spouse, friends and family sufficient while in addition distressed patients did not engage in merely ~ counseling due to cost and capriciousness of how to initiate such handling.

The Value of Fertility

The set store by of pregnancy, procreation and fertility expands across religious and cultural arenas. Some devotional faiths hold the theological belief that producing a linage of children is prove of divine approval. Biblical stories discover of women in agony and grudge of the other women who bear their husband’s children. The leading to nothing women are ostracized and humiliated ~ dint of. the community.
In various cultures such as Latin American or African American, essential ~ fertile is a reflection of the contract a woman has to produce children especially a son. Having a son was a thinking of the husband’s manhood and their influence or right. For some couples, a infant reflects a shared experience or produces a family of family to care for the aging parents or family members. (Jennings, Jun 1970)

In some countries fertility compensates for losing children in sharp-risk military activity. Having a household is typically valued as an of great weight social institution. In example of this, in Tel Aviv, Israel, sterility treatment is free and unlimited in the place of up to two babies until a woman is 45. (Kraft, 2011)

The Health of Collaboration and Good Grief

Research demonstrated talking improved overall well subsistence and increased pregnancy rates. Effective therapeutic treatment facilitates healing and strengthening the commerce between the couple. Our role like care providers is to help nurture patients about the myths of weight, empowering them to cope with a challenging take a tour, facilitate good choices and enhancing their coping skills, quite within a safe environment.

The emotional entanglement of infertility begins before the stiff medical diagnosis. The dream of starting a family or the maternal desire to have ~ing pregnant is the vision that keeps the pair and a woman excited about the coming. After a year of possible miscarriages or vain conception, grief and loss could call into existence a sense of distraught, anger and helplessness.

When a person’s appearance of an ideal world is shattered, emotions like corporation and blame can arise. These feelings be possible to interfere with the couple’s alliance creating isolation and withdrawal from one and the other other. For example, the husband efficacy withdraw from his wife because he is out of countenance he cannot impregnate her. In change the direction of, the wife starts to feel alone and capable of being wounded while coping with the situation.

Emotions be possible to appear erratic between the intervals of therapeutical treatment. Numbness represses the desire or reliance to conceive or become a parent. In other words, the lack of touching overpowers the rage of the unaccomplished desire to be a parent. For case in point, after an unsuccessful IVF a woman doesn’t be without to attend her sister’s infant. shower because she is envious and distressed.

Understanding the conflict of family obligations and the poverty from infertility, the woman could investigate options which empower her to make useful internal and external strengths. Also, it could be helpful to explore how detachment is or is not helpful. For instance, lack of anxiety facilitates suffering for another round of hormones, which have unpleasant side effects. The curative work would be to discuss in what manner to plan for the anticipated migraine or diversified other effects she might feel. Ideally be delivered of the couple share this experience contemporaneously.

Edginess and negative thought like “I won’t survive another treatment cycle,” initiates every important discussion about feelings. For instance, the husband has anxiety about dipping into the retreat fund to pay for treatment during the time that his wife believes using the 401K is a viable choice.

Creating a plan to bear the woe and/or anxiety associated between treatment cycles or previous miscarriages empowers the pair to cope with the anticipated stressed and potential loss. For instance, if the two is spiritual, they could write a adoration for the endurance, guidance and composing.

Ethics

For an authentic alliance by our patients, as therapists we want to understand our counter transference and its impinging on the treatment. Should we fail to win sight of ourselves, the treatment and the alliance fail. Thus, it behooves us to learn our patient’s value in pregnancy and having children and to furthermore understand our own beliefs and values here and there fertility and infertility.

Infertility converges in c~tinuance multifaceted political, personal and medical beliefs and values. Politically, unfruitfulness falls under the category of impotence, touching on the categories of natural causes with medical interventions, psychological aspects and friendly implications (Khetapal, Jun 2012). The en~ of a California woman, who had octuplets afterward using IVF, motivated doctors and couples to attempt to lower the rate of multiple births. According the Centers as being Disease Control and Preventions, forty-six percent of IVF babies are multiples by majority twins and 37% are born hasty. (Marchion, 2013) Therapy sessions would subsist one forum to discuss the fancy for single or multiple births, the risks and preferred peculiarity of life.

What is the superlatively good way to handle the disruption of usage? For example, phone sessions or Skype are not billable during the term of insurance and not ethically or legally defined in the reach parameters in certain states. Furthermore, payments toward missed sessions or cancellations should have existence discussed in sessions. A well-import therapist might believe it would be compassionate to not charge for a missed session. But therapeutically, the unilateral decision may not be in the best interest of the leash. A conversation about what policy should exist is powerful and insightful in understanding the couple. It also allowed them the suitable to be involved in decisions and expressing feelings during a difficult and sometimes helpless trip.

If you are inclined to make provision referrals, such as to an acupuncturist, it is commanding in your consent and contract to condition you are not accountable for for what reason treatment progresses with another provider and you are not receiving a single one payment for the referral. The unite shares a story about their intimate who used massage therapy to back in becoming pregnant and they pray for you if you are familiar by the positive results of massage. Before giving the denunciation, ask the couple if they are looking because of support or information.

When the therapist is great with child during the treatment, it could have existence painful for the patient. Do not assume it would be in the best interest to convey or terminate working with the persevering. If the patient is open to investigate, you could provide the forum to remain a safe and insightful exploration.

Self-disclosing one’s concede struggle with infertility is a blurry race. The APA guidelines emphasize not collision with one’s autonomy and life superintendence (2014). Before any self-disclosure, it would have existence useful to do an inventory of transference and counter transference.

There is a lack of exploration regarding the LGBT community who long for to have a family and the accessibility to management. The therapist could support the copulate in deciding who donates the semen if the gay couple decides to application a surrogate. For lesbian couples who be destitute of to be involved in the conception of the suckling, through IVF one could donate the incite and have the embryo implanted into the convivial mother, who would be the carrier.

Case Study

For particular years I had been seeing Claire as far as concerns psychotherapy. She was married and a happy professional in her mid-thirties through a significant history depression and uneasiness. She had a warm sense of jocularity and loved to learn about herself. During the pristine couple of years working together, she feared her time to come children would be genetically predisposed to undergo from similar aliments and struggled betwixt the desire to feel a brat growing inside of her and her want to adopt.

During the course of our therapy, Claire forgave herself as antidote to having a diagnosable mental illness and she realized the complaint did not define who she was or her quickness to love and care for a nursling. She and her husband decided to conceive naturally. After one year of not getting pregnant, Claire was diagnosed with sterility. The medical doctors had no unimpeded diagnosis about why she didn’t commit to memory pregnant and she suffered throughout that time from a uninterrupted sense of loss. She had eternally dreamed of being a mom and having a house and now she had to meet in front the fact that it might not fall out.

With the bond of pregnancy greatest in number valued, Claire and her husband pursued barrenness treatment. Claire got her period despite several continuous months during the regularity of IVF, which launched her into one instinctive survival mode of emotional detachment to bear up under the treatment. This came at a require to be paid which lead to her becoming isolated, emotionally and sexually detached from her economize.

She did her best to form at work, but the clock ruled transversely her as she anticipated lab results. Her do ~-work performance began to suffer and the cost was guilt, shame and embarrassment. Work started to be excited heavy and dreadful. Her depression ignited, leaving her brooding in solitariness and sleeping for 17 hours or further every day. Her “should” cognitions were in overdrive and they kept her paralyzed.

As I witnessed Claire’s pertaining to physics and emotional agony and the pain in her marriage it caused, I began to imagine her harshly. How could she brutalize her body from treatments and spend so a great deal of money just to conceive and impel a child. I hated her with respect to choosing to participate in the infecundity treatment process and for holding persuasion in the medical model. I felt dreary and betrayed that she conformed to society’s influence to attempt pregnancy, no matter the costs. I wanted her to join me in rejecting this horrid and debilitating process and to redirect her energies ready adopting a child and connecting by her husband.

It was disturbing to have such an intensely negative reaction to a retainer, so I began to repress these feelings and thoughts in every attempt to protect both of us. In the trial, however, I became increasingly disconnected from Claire.

What was happening betwixt us strained my belief in the Humanistic draw nigh, which emphasizes that we are in curb of our destiny, our choices and the ascertainment of meaning for our life’s tale. This approach makes use of the propinquity created between the therapist and diligent as a catalyst for exploration and change. A safe arena was vital in opposition to Claire to share her narrative and to be the first to find the meaning of her experiences, the energy in the range could then provide an atmosphere instrumental for healing. Regardless of my opinions and beliefs, I wanted to comfort her destiny and choices.

In succession for me to have the exemption from restraint. to accomplish this, I disclosed the vex of my challenges with my weekly peer supervision group. My peers validated me and understood for what cause I felt threatened, but also challenged me all over my counter transference and helped me to toil through it. Other colleagues were offended ~ dint of. the infertility treatment process and called my persistent “greedy.” A few of them had been adopted and were exasperated that it wasn’t Claire’s rudimentary choice. Others were sympathetic with her condition and could relate to her privation to biologically conceive a child. Through the dispose process, I was able to take cognizance of all the different parts of myself heart voiced through my peers and I felt protected and free enough to get to some of my own core fears and doubts hither and thither infertility. Ultimately this freed me up to have ~ing much more present with Claire in the coming months.

During a subsequent session, Claire tearfully shared how painful it was to have no control during the infertility process. My interior voice whispered, Ask her if she feels she has the sufficiency to choose to stop the unproductiveness process. Before working through counter transference through my supervision group, I would receive suppressed this voice, believing it was my allow “stuff” and would not exist helpful to Claire. Now my affections pounded and I couldn’t succor but speak up, “Who says you exigency to continue to fail with the pregnancy attempts?” Something in the apartment shifted. After a pause, Claire affirmed, “I could desist from.” I exhaled. We had as the final move found a moment of empowerment and communication.

Therapy is not immune to the rent of the infertility treatment process. The scheduling of appointments revolved round Claire’s menstrual cycle and she canceled appointments right to the side effects of medications and clinic appointments. We had lapses betwixt appointments while waiting for the doctors to close union her for the next treatment revolution of time. All of this meant that I needed to outline out what would take care of me during her infertility series. That involved answering questions in the same state as: How do I cope with my anger? How do I maintain from getting stuck in her holding figure of waiting? Do I charge during the term of missed appointment?

With the ongoing act as aid to of my supervision group, I continued to inquire into my emotional reaction. Claire and I collaborated relative to payment for missed appointments. She willingly paid and the united collaboration made her an active participator in an otherwise helpless period.

The Breakthrough

“I’m timid you’re mad at me in opposition to the last minute cancellation last week,” Claire afore~. “I’m failing at everything.” In actuality I was angry about the position. Missed appointments touch on my vulnerability around not being recognized as precious possession. But our agreement for her to pay for missed sessions, combined with my allow awareness of the reasons behind my reckoner transference, made it possible for me to course my response outside of session. This allowed me to convey my full attention to figuring not at home what she was enacting and that which it meant for her. I responded, “You contrive you should be able to horsemanship life better. But things are dropping wholly around you. Your relationship with your economize, your work, your friendships and especially not getting pregnant. You’re feeling so alone.” I watched her power of attainment for a tissue, look down at her lick up, and wipe her tears. “What are the tears adage right now?”

In her gentle voice, Claire answered, “I’m alarmed my husband will be angry at me in favor of not controlling my emotions. My vexation is through the roof. I wish to be in my bedroom with the covers over my head. It’s unequal to expect my colleagues to chouse my work. I want to have ~ing with my friends but it hurts in addition much because they have babies or are gravid.” She believed she needed to be perfect and worried about disappointing everyone round her, including me.

But this conference about failure and disappointment positioned Claire to set in operation healing her marriage and bring her husband, family, and friends back into her life. Through addressing her isolation, Claire articulated her envy about her friends conscious pregnant or having newborns. She felt conflicted all over whether to maintain her connections or insulate herself because it was too severe to be subjected to swollen bellies and to the free from the guilt scent of newborns.

She also acknowledged she pushed her husband away because she did not have need of to be perceived as a “chorus.” He had a demanding work at ~s that made him unhappy, but it with the understanding them with medical insurance to pay on the side of the infertility treatment. She secretly fantasized nearly him attending medical appointments with her and substance readily available to abruptly leave moil to provide comfort when she accepted bad news. I encouraged her to portion her emotional burdens with her manage with frugality, to let him feel her reiterated doctrine, as that is part of that which it means to be intimate with another person. She began to experience less guilty and apologetic about her struggles and to certain quantity the craziness of the process by him. They became closer and her sex life began to grow again.

Over the two-year circuit of her IVF treatments, Claire’s visits to the reproductive soundness center would evoke a sense of helplessness and want of emotional safety. She often felt rushed for the cause that she didn’t get satisfactory information to her questions and the clinic became increasingly more uncomfortable and sterile. As our drudge progressed, she was more assertive and less apologetic about demanding the attention of the nurses and doctors to the time when she was satisfied with the gathered knowledge. To increase her comfort at appointments, she brought her recognize pillow and blankets.

Unfortunately, Claire was given a distribute of unhelpful advice from her allow support system of family, friends and at the very time medical doctors. She was told, during the term of example, to “just relax” as her stress could be interfering by the infertility process. In the therapy sessions, we worked ~ward how to handle unwanted and once hurtful advice and not absorb the mischievous implications. When she deemed it appropriate, she informed the masses about what would be helpful or noxious.

Different Kind of Pregnant

When the IVF failed, Claire and her save opted for the final remaining choice, an egg donor. Our sessions were spent with her describing how a giver was selected and the various reasons they donated their eggs. It was a surprisingly sport process for both of us.

After her assistant cycle with the egg donor, she curled up ~ward the sofa in my office, hugging a pillow by a distant look in her eyes. Her edge trembling, she said, “For four days, I was pregnant. Now I’m pissed off.” Her rage demonstrated no wrong. She did everything right but was impotent to carry her first pregnancy.

The following month, her third attempt was successful.

One day, well into her support trimester and beaming with life, Claire elated, “My boobs are very great!” She shared her ultrasound pictures of her hale son and we talked through her force about finances with the arrival of her infant.. In her desire to save circulating medium and prepare for the baby’s arrival, she requested a make docile from therapy. I encouraged her to be on the point and create a loving home beneficial to her son. Tearing up, she before-mentioned, “I can’t believe I be possible to hear ‘my son’ after aggregate of these years.” Claire would shortly be a mom.

Summary

Research demonstrated the issue rate with quality of life and increased pregnancy rates through psychotherapeutic treatment. However, before the aim of medical infertility treatment it is apparent, screening as being depression and anxiety need to exist mandated. Ideally a couple would have ~ing collaborating and working with a therapist during the journey of attempting conception. Lastly, during the time that therapist, we need to understand the exterior and ethical considerations while working through the specific issue of infertility, finally having the psychotherapeutic work remain pistillate.

References

http://americanpregnancy.org/infertility/what-is-infertility/ (Sept 2014)

http://www.counseling.org/Resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf

Boivin J, Scanlan LC, Walker SM (1999) Why are infertile patients not using psychosocial counseling? Human Reproduction 14 (5) 1384-1391.

Chandra A, Copen C, Stephen E (Jan 2014) Infertility business use in the United States: given conditions from the national survey of parents and children growth, 1982 – 2010. National Health Statistics Reports 73.

Chen T-H, Chang S-P, Tsai C-F, Juang K-D (2004) Prevalance of depressive and disquiet disorders in an assisted reproductive technique clinic. Human Reproduction 19 (10) 2313-2318.

Clay R, (Sept 2006) Does force hinder conception? American Psychological Association 37 (8) 46.

Domar A, Clapp D, Slawsby E, Kessel B, Orav J (2000) The collision of group psychological interventions on affliction in infertile women. Health Psychology 19 (6) 568-575.

Faramarzi M, Kheirkhah F, Esmaelzadeh S, Alipour A, Hjiahmadi M, Rahnama J (Nov 2008) Is psychotherapy a reliable alternative to pharmacotherapy to promote the ideal health of infertile women? A randomized clinical criterion. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 141 (1) 49-53.

Faramarzi M, Pasha H, Esmailzadeh S, Kheirkhah F, Heidary S, Afshar Z (Oct-Dec 2013) The event of the cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy up~ the body infertility stress: a randomized controlled sorrow. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 7 (3) 199-206.

Hambleton, L (Aug 26, 2013) Not pregnant: sometimes it’s the man. The Washington Post.

Jennings G (June 1970) Cultural factors impressive human fertility. Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 52-59. [www.asa3.org/ASA]

Khetarpal A, Singh S (June 30 2012) Infertility: wherefore can’t we classify this want of capacity as a disability? Australian Medical Journal.

Kraft D (July 17 2011) Where families are prized, improve is free. The New York Times.

Marchione M (Dec 2 2013) Fertility doctors design to lower rate of twin births. The Washington Post.

http://myfertilitychoices.com/productiveness-information/lgbt-options/

www.ncbi.nlm.nhi.gov/medlineplus/ency/part/001191.htm (Feb 2014)

http://www.nichd.nih.gov/information/resources/links/infographics/Pages/infertility.aspx (2013)

Pearson E (June 30, 2010) Depression and misgiving: do they impact infertility treatment? Infertility and Mental Health [www.womensmentalhealth.org]

Ramezanzadeh F, Noorbala A-A, Abedinia N, Forooshani A-R, Naghizadeh M-M (Jan-Mar 2011) Psychiatric agency improved pregnancy rates in infertile couples. Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences 18 (1) 16-24.

Schenker JG, Meirow D, Schenker E (Jun 1992) Stress and human representation. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 45 (1) 1-8.

http://www.shadygrovefertility.com

wendy-iglehartWendy Iglehart, LCPC, is a Licensed Psychotherapist, Clinical Supervisor, and Collaborative Divorce Coach through over 19 years of experience and has her private practice in Cockeysville, Maryland. She has presented concerning the Licensed Clinical Professional Counselors of Maryland on the topic of infertility. The professional website, Pyschotherapy.com, published her division, “Infertility & Its Discontents: The Struggle & Transcendence from Both Sides of The Couch.” She has contributed several articles to divorce information websites in various places the Collaborative Divorce process. For her operate as a Collaborative Divorce Coach, she has been featured in The Washington Post & Baltimore Child Magazine, since well as, an expert guest put ~ the radio. In her private constant exercise, she counsels adult individuals and couples through austere transitions.

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