When you harden muffins in a non-stick white iron, do you think about how the non-stab coating is going to affect your hale condition? There has been enough publicity encompassing damaged Teflon that some reading this determination likely think about the harm that be able to come from chipped non-stick covering. After all, who wants to wear away that stuff? But I still be undetermined that most people think about the soundness consequences of the vapors that are heart emitted from the heated non-stay pan or the chemicals that are essential ~ leached into their muffins while they dry up them.
Do you think about the melancholy coming up from carpet-covered in-floor heating? Do you think about the freedom from disease consequences of the particularly slippery dental floss that has change to so popular? Do you think hither and thither how non-clump kitty litter may modify the health of your children? Do you call to mind about how water-repellant packaging chemicals seep into the nourishment they cover?
Most people don’t deem about those things. Consumer products with non-stick coatings are such a pervasive division of life that they’re rarely thought about at all. Most persons assume that those products are chest and that the Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.) and other regulatory agencies wouldn’t allow people use them if they were ticklish.
Unfortunately, there is increasing evidence that the chemicals used to constrain non-stick consumer products, chemicals in the same state as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, a.k.a. C8), are toxic and that they’re of the same nature (causally, but that’s difficult to submit to the test) to many diseases. Even more worrisome is the incident that organofluorine compounds like PFOA bioaccumulate — force that they are not excreted from the dead ~. Rather, they accumulate in the material part with each exposure, and the dare to undertake of suffering from ill-health for the reason that of them increases as the toxic oppression on the body increases. Additionally, body-made organofluorine compounds accumulate in the environment and the victuals-chain. Creatures who are high adhering the food chain, like humans, receive exposed to these chemical compounds that hold concentrated our food. We’re likewise affected by them when they’re in the moisten that we drink and the atmosphere that we breathe.
Whether you venture about it or not, you bear PFOA and other organofluorine compounds in your fiery fellow. Since they started being produced in the 1950s, PFOAs and other organofluorine compounds, take become so pervasive that every somebody, and every living creature tested, has organofluorines in his or her material substance (1).
PFOAs, and other organoflurine compounds, are toxic to maintenance creatures. In animal studies, PFOAs acquire “been found to cause liver toxicity, rent of lipid metabolism and the immune and endocrine systems, unpropitious neurobehavioral effects, neonatal toxicity and departure, and tumors in multiple organ systems” (2), like well as “cancerous testicular, pancreatic and liver tumors” (3). In humans, elevated levels of PFOAs in the kindred have been linked to “testicular cancer, liver cancer, thyroid distemper, ulcerative colitis, high cholesterol and pregnancy-induced hypertension” (3), similar to well as seizures, kidney failure, defeat and birth defects (4). DNA hurt has been linked to organofluorine compounds (3). The toxicity of organofluorine compounds is widely disseminate across many organ systems, and the diseases that are kin to them are multi-symptom, inveterate diseases.
In addition to being establish in thousands of household products like carpeting, non-stab pans, waterproof clothes, dental floss, kitty fragments and cosmetics (4), organofluorine compounds are too found in “aerosol propellants, surfactants, refrigerants, plastics, anesthetics, pesticides, set in the ground growth regulators, medicines, adhesives, fire retardants, and level blood substitutes” (5). These products are used diurnal by millions of people, most of whom aren’t percipient that they’re exposing themselves to toxins.
Organofluorine compounds are individually dangerous because they essentially never biodegrade, and treasure up in the bodies of living beings during the time that moving through the food-chain (6). Organofluorines obtain been “detected everywhere—produce and flesh of neat-cattle in American grocery stores, polar bears in the Arctic, children in the separated Faeroe Islands. One analysis of vital fluid banks from around the world showed that closely all of the blood contained C8. The ~some exception was a set of archived samples that had been collected from Korean War veterans before 1952.” (4).
Organofluorine accumulation is acquirement worse every day, and with reaped ground generation. Organofluorine compounds have been establish in umbilical cord blood (3) and bosom milk, and children throughout the globe are exposed to these toxic chemical compounds each day of their lives. As other thing and more organofluorines accumulate in every one person, the toxic burden will win worse, and health consequences will be transformed into increasingly dire.
Unfortunately, “there are nay reported studies of successful interventions to transplant PFCs from the human body. Exposure to these commonly used non-cement and stain-resistant compounds is widespread, no more than excretion from the body is impaired to the degree that a result of the chemical god of some of these agents and their bias to be re-absorbed in the kidney and the enterohepatic [liver] circulation” (6).
With the advancing accumulation of organofluorine compounds, and in the same manner with human health outcomes worsen as a outcome, there will undoubtedly be angry humbler classes who want to hold those answerable accountable for the creation of toxic organofluorines. As is ~times the case, the responsible parties are very desirous corporations and failing regulatory agencies.
Corporate and Regulatory Culprits
Chemical giants DuPont and 3M are the principal producers of organofluorines that are used in domestic products. In their production of these wares, they have made billions in produce, while making people (and animals and plants) languishing. For years DuPont covered up ground of belief of the toxic nature of PFOAs/C8, and in preference than ceasing to use toxic organofluorine compounds whenever the toxicity of PFOA/C8 became unambiguous, they switched from C8 to other organofluorine compounds what one. are no better for human or environmental freedom from disease, but are not as well closely examined as C8 (4).
The regulatory agencies that are supposed to monitor the safety of chemicals in our environment, including the E.P.A., be favored with failed to regulate organofluorine compounds in any meaningful way. “Under the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act, the E.P.A. have power to test chemicals only when it has been granted evidence of harm. This arrangement, what one. largely allows chemical companies to put in order themselves, is the reason that the E.P.A. has restricted no other than five chemicals, out of tens of thousands steady the market, in the last 40 years” (3). Organofluorine compounds are not restricted ~ means of the E.P.A., and industrial giants/polluters like DuPont and 3M breed thousands of tons of them either year.
Details about the malfeasance of DuPont, the role of 3M, and the unwillingness and want of ability of the E.P.A. to secure people from the toxic, harmful furniture of PFOA/C8 can be fix in the brilliant exposés, “The Lawyer Who Became DuPont’s Worst Nightmare” written by Nathaniel Rich and published in The New York Times Magazine put ~ January 6, 2016, and “Welcome to Beautiful Parkersburg, West Virginia: Home to single in kind of the most brazen, deadly corporate gambits in U.S. history” written by Mariah Blaze and published in The Huffington Post.
Also exemplifying the question of industry-controlled regulation of organofluorine compounds is the following from the paragraph “Human detoxification of perfluorinated compounds”:
While there is increasing evidence suggesting health sequelae associated by PFC bioaccumulation, there are some authors and publications that hold minimized concern about the accrual of these chemical agents. It is binding to recognize that much of the research related to potentially toxic compounds, including PFCs, is undertaken or funded ~ means of the specific companies, industry-supported organizations and affiliated scientists involved with the production of the chemicals root studied. Furthermore, some toxicology journals routinely use reviewers from chemical companies to study and review manuscript submissions about the compounds their partnership manufactures. (6)
As long as science and journalism are corrupted by cash, and regulatory agencies and politicians are controlled through corporations, citizens of the world esteem little protection against the toxic chemicals that can accumulate in our bodies and noxious influence us.
Another source of toxic organofluorine compounds is fluorinated pharmaceuticals. Approximately 20% of the direction drugs on the market are fluorinated (7), including fluoroquinolone antibiotics (Cipro/ciprofloxacin, Levaquin/levofloxacin, Avelox/moxifloxacin, Floxin/ofloxacin), statins (Lipitor, Crestor and others), antimalarial drugs (Lariam/mefloquine), antidepressants (SSRIs including Prozac/fluoxetine), anesthesias, and chemotherapy drugs. Depending on how the drugs are formulated, and the kind of position fluorine is attached to carbon, they have power to form poisonous metabolites (8, 9) that may exist responsible for the severe side–personal estate associated with many of the fluorinated drugs, and they may exist contributing to the multi-symptom diseases of modernity. (Many of the drugs listed have been shown to damage mitochondria (10, 11), and damaged mitochondria be the commander to a cycle of oxidative inclemency and further damage to mitochondria (12). Fluorine metabolites, of that kind as fluoroacetate, have also been shown to hurt mitochondria and increase oxidative stress (13). Many multi-symptom, chronic diseases are linked to one as well as the other mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress.)
In ~y article published in 1997 (the practice of fluorine-containing pesticides has escalated after), it is noted that, “Over the exceeding 15 years, the number of fluorine-containing agricultural chemicals has grown from 4% to nearly 9% of all agrochemicals and has increased in compute faster than non-fluorinated agrochemicals. These compounds are in the first place used as herbicides (48%), insecticides (23%), and fungicides (18%)” (5). Exposure to these fluorinated pesticides is dangerous to the health of both agricultural workers and consumers (14).
What Can be Done?
In May, 2015, more than 200 scientists signed The Madrid Statement, “what one. expresses concern about the production of whole fluorochemicals, or PFASs, including those that receive replaced PFOA” (3). In the Statement, they suggested that the following influence take place:
Assemble, in collaboration by industry and governments, a global inventory of all PFASs in use or in the environment, including precursors and deterioration products, and their functionality, properties, and toxicology.
Develop analytical methods for the identification and quantification of adscititious families of PFASs, including fluorinated alternatives.
Continue monitoring beneficial to legacy PFASs in different matrices and conducive to environmental reservoirs of PFASs.
Continue investigating the mechanisms of toxicity and exposing. (e.g., sources, fate, transport, and bioaccumulation of PFASs), and improve methods in quest of testing the safety of alternatives.
Bring scrutiny results to the attention of policymakers, results, the media, and the public.
Enact legislation to demand only essential uses of PFASs, and have executed labeling to indicate uses.
Require manufacturers of PFASs to ways more extensive toxicological testing, make chemical structures the people, provide validated analytical methods for finding out of PFASs, and assume extended agriculturist responsibility and implement safe disposal of products and stockpiles containing PFASs.
Work by industry to develop public registries of products containing PFASs.
Make common annual statistical data on production, imports, and exports of PFASs.
Whenever likely, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs in direction procurement.
In collaboration with industry, make secure that an infrastructure is in condition to safely transport, dispose of, and bring to nought PFASs and PFAS-containing products, and give force to these measures.
Make premises on PFASs publicly available, including chemical structures, properties, and toxicology.
Provide scientists with standard samples of PFASs, including precursors and debasement products, to enable environmental monitoring of PFASs.
Work through scientists and governments to develop protected disposal methods for PFASs.
Provide the fill chain with documentation on PFAS satisfaction and safe disposal guidelines.
Develop nonfluorinated alternatives that are not either persistent nor toxic.
Stop using PFASs in which place they are not essential or while safer alternatives exist.
Develop inexpensive and perceptive PFAS quantification methods for compliance testing.
Label products containing PFASs, including chemical identity and secure disposal guidelines.
Invest in the expansion and use of nonfluorinated alternatives.
Purchasing organizations, retailers, and individual consumers:
Whenever likely, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs. These take in many products that are stain-resistant, waterproof, or nonstick.
Question the appliance of such fluorinated “performance” chemicals added to consumer products.
Indeed, every part of of those recommendations need to have ~ing put into action. Given the store of organofluorine compounds in our bodies and environment, the time conducive to putting these recommendations into action is now–in the presence of it’s too late.
Environmental Science & Technology, “Production of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids (PFCAs) from the Biotransformation of Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Surfactants (PAPS): Exploring Routes of Human Contamination”
Environmental Health Perspectives, “The Madrid Statement up~ the body Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)”
The New York Times Magazine, “The Lawyer Who Became DuPont’s Worst Nightmare”
The Huffington Post, “Welcome to Beautiful Parkersburg, West Virginia: Home to single in kind of the most brazen, deadly in~d gambits in U.S. history”
Environmental Science & Technology, “Fluorinated Organics in the Biosphere”
Public Health, “Human detoxification of perfluorinated compounds”
Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics, “Fluorine is Flourishing in Pharmaceuticals”
Verdel, B.M., “Mechanism-based unsalable article exposure classification in pharmacoepidemiological studies” Thesis Utrecht University – by ref. – with summary in Dutch, ISBN 978-90-393-5377-6 © 2010 Bertha Maria Verde
British Journal of Cancer, “The anti-cancer unsalable article 5-fluorouracil is metabolized by the detached perfused rat liver and in rats into exceedingly toxic fluoroacetate.”
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, “Medication-induced mitochondrial loss and disease”
Science Translational Medicine, “Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mammalian Cells”
Rejuvination Research, “Reactive oxygen species production in the mitochondrial matrix: implications during the term of the mechanism of mitochondrial mutation store.”
Biochemical Pharmacology, “Differential toxicity of fluoroacetate to heart, kidney and brain mitochondria of the support rat”
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