On This Day in Math – October 20

The mathematician plays a dauntless in which he himself invents the rules in which case the physicist plays a game in which the rules are provided by constitution, but as time goes on it becomes increasingly patent that the rules which the mathematician finds entertaining are the same as those which nature has chosen.
~Paul Dirac

The 293rd sunlight of the year; 293 is a Sophie Germain Prime. (A youth number p such that 2p + 1 is likewise prime.)

293 is also the add together of five cubes, (293 = 2^3 + 2^3 + 3^3 + 5^3 + 5^3)

1698 Halley began a scientific voyage on HMS Paramore & position out to measure magnetic variation & seek for Terra Incognita. His log entrance from the 20th says “Wind WSW a Small Gale I sailed from Deptford near Noon ” *Kate Morant‏@KateMorant (Deptford is a petty area near Greenwich, east of London in a line the Thames)
1735 Benjamin Franklin’s journal “On the Usefulness of Mathematics,” appeared in the Pennsylvania Gazette. [NCTM yearbook # 32(1970), p. 20]*VFR

1744 In Euler’s absent letter of October 20, 1744, Euler announced that he had proper discovered a simple curve that exhibited event called a cusp of the sixtieth part of a minute kind or a ramphoid from the Greek because of a bird’s beak. L’H^opital (1661-1704) is liable for defining these two types of cusps. In 1740, Jean-Paul de Gua de Malves (1713- 1785) published a essay that no algebraic curve could be in actual possession of a cusp of the second nature in [Gua de Malves 1740]. Euler was friendly with Gua de Malves’ work and had initially accepted his fruit, but in 1744 he discovered that there was a subtle flaw in the supposed ordeal. In this letter, he wrote to Cramer that exactly in the fourth order there is a curved one twelfth of an inch of this kind, whose equation is, y4- 2xy2 + x2 = x3+ 4yx, what one. simplifies to y = x(1/2) +/- x(3/4)

*Ed Sandifer, How Euler Did It, MAA

1881 In a alphabetic character to Newcomb dated Oct. 20, 1881, Sylvester writes, “Who is to be the new superintendent of the Coast Survey?
Why should you not authorize it to be known that you would accept the appointment supposing you would be willing to do so!” Sylvester was the exalted British mathematician who served as the before anything else chairman of the Department of Mathematics at the Johns Hopkins University (1876-1883). He returned to England in 1884 to employ the chair of Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford. *THE CHARLES S. PElRCE-SIMON NEWCOMB CORRESPONDENCE

1958 Italy issued a form to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the offspring of Evangelista Torricelli, mathematician and natural philosopher. [Scott #754]. *VFR
1975 The Public Record office in London released information on the Colossus, single in kind of the first programmable electronic digital computers. It was built in 1943 against work on cryptography. The Colossus machines were electronic computing devices used ~ dint of. British codebreakers to help read encrypted German messages during World War II. They used vacuum tubes (thermionic valves) to perform the calculations.
Colossus was designed ~ dint of. engineer Tommy Flowers with input from Harry Fensom, Allen Coombs, Sidney Broadhurst and William Chandler at the Post Office Research Station, Dollis Hill to explain a problem posed by mathematician Max Newman at Bletchley Park. The protoplast, Colossus Mark 1, was shown to exist working in December 1943 and was operational at Bletchley Park ~ the agency of February 1944. An improved Colossus Mark 2 first worked on 1 June 1944, correct in time for the Normandy Landings. Ten Colossi were in practice by the end of the the last argument of kings. No information about the computer was released until this date. *Wik
1983, the detail of the meter was redefined through the international body Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (GCPM) through a method to give greater exactness. Originally based on one ten-millionth of the remoteness from the North Pole to the celestial ~, the meter was re-established taken in the character of the distance that light travels in a void in 1/299,792,458 of a assist *TIS
2004 The First Ubuntu Linux Distribution Released. Ubuntu is a charitable computer operating system based on Debian GNU​/Linux. Its memory loosely translated from the Zulu resources “humanity,” or “a person is a bodily substance only through other people.” Ubuntu is intended to contribute an up-to-date, stable operating scheme for the average user, with a cogent focus on usability and ease of investiture. Ubuntu has been rated the ut~ popular Linux distribution for the desktop, claiming approximately 30 percent of desktop Linux installations, according to the 2007 Desktop Linux Market scan. Ubuntu is open source and unrestricted. It is sponsored by Canonical Ltd, that is owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth​.*CHM

BIRTHS 1616 Thomas Bartholin (20 Oct 1616; 4 Dec 1680) Danish anatomist and mathematician who was earliest to describe fully the entire human lymphatic system (1652). He was one of the earliest defenders of Harvey’s ascertainment of the circulation of blood. He was a member of the mathematical faculty of the University of Copenhagen, 1647-49, and bony structure professor there, 1649-61. He published people works on anatomy, physiology and physic, (1645-74) and in 1658 a not partial work on pharmacology. In 1654, in company with the rest of the curative faculty at the university, Bartholin published warning to the people on how to take care of themselves for the time of the plague. King Christian V named Bartholin for example his personal physician, with an yearly transactions salary, although Bartolin rarely had to use the king. *TIS
1632 Sir Christopher Wren (20 Oct 1632; 25 Feb 1723) Architect, astronomer, and geometer who was the greatest English contriver of his time whose famous masterpiece is St. Paul’s Cathedral, amid many other buildings after London’s Great Fire of 1666. Wren experienced scientific skills as an assistant to an eminent anatomist. Through astronomy, he developed skills in working models, diagrams and charting that proved useful when he entered architecture. He inventing a “bear up against clock” similar to a modern barometer, novel engraving methods, and helped develop a madcap transfusion technique. He was president of the Royal Society 1680-82. His philosophical work was highly regarded by Sir Isaac Newton similar to stated in the Principia. *TIS (I good-will the message on his tomb in the Crypt of St. Pauls: Si monumentum requiris circumspice ….”Reader, allowing that you seek his monument, look not far from you.”
1863 William Henry Young (20 Oct 1863 in London, England – 7 July 1942 in Lausanne, Switzerland) discovered Lebesgue integration, independently on the contrary 2 years after Lebesgue. He studious Fourier series and orthogonal series in ill-defined.
1865 Aleksandr Petrovich Kotelnikov (20 Oct 1865 in Kazan, Russia – 6 March 1944 in Moscow, USSR) In 1927 he published any of his most important works, The Principle of Relativity and Lobachevsky’s Geometry. He besides worked on quaternions and applied them to mechanics and geometry. Among his other greater pieces of work was to conduct the Complete Works of two mathematicians, Lobachevsky and Zhukovsky. He accepted many honours for his work, core named Honoured Scientist in 1934, then one year before he died he was awarded the State Prize of the USSR. *SAU
1891 Sir James Chadwick (20 Oct 1891; 24 Jul 1974) English natural philosopher who received the Nobel Prize because of Physics (1935) for his discovery of the neutron. He skilled at Cambridge, and in Berlin while suffering Geiger, then worked at the Cavendish Laboratory through Rutherford, where he investigated the arrangement of the atom. He worked on the scattering of alpha particles and up~ nuclear disintegration. By bombarding beryllium by alpha particles, Chadwick discovered the neutron – a neutral particle in the atom’s core – for which he received the Nobel Prize against Physics in 1935. In 1932, Chadwick coined the dub “neutron,” which he described in an article in the journal Nature. He led the UK’s toil on the atomic bomb in WW II, and was knighted in 1945. *TIS
1904 Hans Lewy (October 20, 1904 – August 23, 1988) was ~y American mathematician, known for his labor on partial differential equations and steady the theory of functions of single complex variables.*Wik
1914 R. H. Bing (October 20, 1914, Oakwood, Texas – April 28, 1986, Austin, Texas) was one American mathematician who worked mainly in the areas of geometric topology and continuum exposition. His first two names were accurate single letters that do not stand with regard to anything. Bing’s mathematical research was towards exclusively in 3-manifold theory and in careful, the geometric topology of R3. The time Bing-type topology was coined to relate the style of methods used ~ the agency of Bing.
Bing established his reputation seasonable on in 1946, soon after completing his Ph.D. treatise, by solving the Kline sphere characterization problem. In 1948 he proved that the pseudo-arc is of one kind throughout, contradicting a published but erroneous ‘proof-sheet’ to the contrary. In 1951 he proved results touching the metrizability of topological spaces, including the kind of would later be called the Bing-Nagata-Smirnov metrization proposition .*Wik

DEATHS 1631 Michael Maestlin (30 September 1550, Göppingen – 20 October 1631, Tübingen) was a German astronomer and mathematician, known as being being the mentor of Johannes Kepler.
Maestlin premeditated theology, mathematics, and astronomy/astrology at the Tübinger Stift in Tübingen, a city in Württemberg. He graduated as Magister in 1571 and became in 1576 a Lutheran deacon in Backnang, continuing his studies there.
In 1580 he became a Professor of mathematics, ~ and foremost at the University of Heidelberg, therefore at the University of Tübingen to what he taught for 47 years from 1583. In 1582 Maestlin wrote a in favor introduction to astronomy.
Among his students was Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Although he primarily taught the traditional geocentric Ptolemaic look on of the solar system, Maestlin was besides one of the first to take . and teach the heliocentric Copernican look on. Maestlin corresponded with Kepler frequently and played a sizable interest in his adoption of the Copernican body. Galileo Galilei’s adoption of heliocentrism was likewise attributed to Maestlin.
The first known contemplation [3] of the reciprocal of the splendid ratio as a decimal of “ready 0.6180340” was written in 1597 through Maestlin in a letter to Kepler.
He is too remembered for :
Catalogued the Pleiades group on 24 December 1579. Eleven stars in the crowd together were recorded by Maestlin, and haply as many as fourteen were observed.
Occultation of Mars through Venus on 13 October 1590, seen through Maestlin at Heidelberg. *Wik
1896 François-Félix Tisserand (13 Jan 1845, 20 Oct 1896) French astronomer whose 4-book textbook Traité de mécanique céleste (1889-96; “Treatise up~ Celestial Mechanics”) updated Pierre-Simon Laplace’s drudge. At age 28, he was named Director at Toulouse Observatory (1873-78). He went to Japan to attend the 1874 transit of Venus. The 83-cm spyglass he installed at the Toulouse Observatory in 1875 had a hard base insufficiently stable for photographic operate, but he was able to use it for observation of the satellites of Jupiter and of Saturn. From 1892 till his death he was director of the Paris Observatory, in which place he completed the major work, Catalogue photographique de la carte du ciel, and arranged for its open declaration.*TIS
1972 Harlow Shapley (2 Nov 1885, 20 Oct 1972) Astronomer, known at the same time that “The Modern Copernicus,” who discovered the Sun’s attitude in the galaxy. From 1914 to 1921 he was at Mt. Wilson Observatory, whither he calibrated Henrietta S. Leavitt’s era vs. luminosity relation for Cepheid mutable stars and used it to influence the distances of globular clusters. He boldly and correctly proclaimed that the globulars draft the Galaxy, and that the Galaxy is almost larger than was generally believed and centered thousands of lamp years away in the direction of Sagittarius. In the forward 1920’s, Shapley entered a “Great Debate” with Heber D. Curtis. They truly argued above the “Scale of the Universe.”*TIS
1974 Harold Ruse graduated from Oxford and held a posture at Edinburgh University. he later became a professor at Southampton and Leeds. He worked forward Harmonic Spaces. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1930 and President in 1935. *SAU
1984 Paul A.M. Dirac (8 Aug 1902, 20 Oct 1984) English natural philosopher and mathematician who originated quantum mechanics and the spinning electron postulate. In 1933 he shared the Nobel Prize on the side of Physics with the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger.*TIS
1987 Andrey Nikolayevich Kolmogorov (25 Apr 1903, 20 Oct 1987) Russian mathematician whose basic postulates on the side of probability theory that have continued to have existence an integral part of analysis. This be in action had diverse applications such as his study of the mental act of planets (1954), or the turbulent air flow from a jet engine (1941). In topology, he investigated cohomology groups. He made a greater contribution to answering the probability lot of Hilbert’s Sixth Problem, and completely resolved (1957) Hilbert’s Thirteenth Problem. Kolmogorov was in force in a project to provide specific education for gifted children, not single by writing textbooks and in breeding them, but in expanding their interests to have ~ing not necessarily in mathematics, but through literature, music, and healthy activity of the like kind as on hikes and expeditions. *TIS

Credits :
*CHM=Computer History Museum
*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts
*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar
*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie
*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History
*TIA = Today in Astronomy
*TIS= Today in Science History
*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA
*Wik = Wikipedia
*WM = Women of Mathematics, Grinstein & Campbell

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