An between nations group of scientists, including Vladimir Chupin, section of the Biophysics Section at MIPT, and Vladimir Torchilin (Northeastern University, the USA), individual of the world‘s leading experts in pharmacology, freshly presented a review of liposomes, microscopic capsules widely used all over the universe in the development of new drugs. Their military, published in the scientific journal Chemical Review, discusses the major achievements in the field and points to the in the greatest degree promising areas for its further exhibition.
Liposomes are microscopic spheres with walls arranged in the sort way as in cell membranes. They were earliest synthesized in 1960s. In the1970s, scientists proposed using liposomes during the delivery of drugs, and a variety of drugs are currently used in liposome form instead of the treatment of many diseases, including influenza and many kinds of malignant tumors.
Thousands of publications have been devoted to liposomes. They are actively studious in a number of laboratories worldwide and the repaired article contains the most detailed ~el of the major achievements in this field. In it, the authors discuss:
late methods for synthesizing liposomes, the zealous and weak points of the divergent technologies;
the main types of liposomes and the various wall structures, along with the variegated complementary molecules used for selective interaction by cells;
different methods of medicine delivery within liposomes. These artificial microspheres be possible to either circulate in an organism during a long while, slowly emitting a drug, or release a drug immediately hinder collision with certain cells.
Liposomes are ingenious to carry out targeted delivery of substances to a necessary destination in the body. The universal of “targeted delivery” includes almost every aspect of pharmacological development, which none coincidence as, for example, during chemotherapy of cancer, but targeted delivery can decrease the gravity of side effects of rather toxic drugs. Besides the targeted parturition, liposomes also have other interesting applications. For example, with their help a new physic form for diclofenac, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-fiery drug, is currently being developed.
The identical drug can be produced in manifold forms. A drug designed for a petty child will most likely be developed in the cast of a syrup rather than atablet, while ointments, creams, and gels are applied locally. Each of these is a contrary form of the same drug.
If diclofenac is placed in a liposome cheek by jowl with a substance that increases hide permeability, the resulting ointment with in the same state microcapsules will be more effective in the management of local inflammatory reactions. Liposomes be able to be even be used for anesthetics so as lidocaine by the facilitation of its pronunciation towards nerve endings. Along with tested drugs for cancer, liposomes can improve drugs known calm to non-specialists.
Nonsteroidal anti-incendiary drugs (NSIAD) are the basis of the majorship of widely used over-the-contrariwise remedies against pain. They include aspirin, ibuprofen, paracetamol, and the before that time mentioned diclofenac being marketed under the thunderbolt name of Voltaren. All of these drugs be at the expense of the suppression of biochemical reactions that lead to the unfolding of inflammation. However, they do not suppress the cause and, therefore, do not reject the need to visit a learned man.
Apart from the delivery of drugs, the authors of the repaired review briefly describe the uses of liposomes as being other purposes. With their help, it is potential to deliver specific markers for the one and the other diagnostic and research tests to cells, though liposome gel (groups of microscopic beads) with special experimental molecules can have ~ing used for the chemical analysis of deviating substances.
In Russia and Ukraine
The sheer author of the new review, Vladimir Torchilin, is the same of the founders of liposomal careful search in Russia, the 1982 laureate of the Lenin capture, author of more than four century scientific publications (Hirsh index over 70), and a recognized ready in the field. At the end of the 1970s, Soviet researchers began conducting adapted to practice research in the area of liposomal medicine production and sometime later a choice of drugs was released in Kharkov ~ means of the Biolek company.
Currently, lipodox, ~y anti-tumor drug (cytostatic – a real existence that suppresses cell division, oxorubicin in liposomes), lipoflavon, ophthalmic drops (each anti-inflammatory agent) are produced without interrupti~ a large scale, while ten other in posse drugs areundergoing different tests, including biological, laboratory and clinical. The mass extension of liposomal drugs is presently substance organized in the Moscow Region (Technology of Drugs, Vitaly Shevts, who is accountable for the development of liposomal careful search together with Vladimir Torchilin).
One of the primary practical applications of liposomal drugs was not in treatment but rather in disease diagnostics: diagnostic syphilis tests were created using liposomes. As Vladimir Chupin explained to the MIPT bear heavily service, these tests turned out to have ~ing more accurate than traditional ones.
Vladimir Chupin, Ph.D. in chemistry, commander of the Biophysics Section at MIPT’s Department of General and Applied Physics:
“I beforehand worked at the RAS Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and near the front of that I had graduated from the Lomonosov Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies and had conducted postgraduate study in the Netherlands. I came to MIPT for the reason that of the good work of my colleagues and the well-equipped laboratories at the Section of Biophysics. We esteem received several large grants from the Ministry of Education and Science,5-100 program; graduates from the one and the other MIPT and abroad come to drudge with us, including from the Department of General and Applied Physics.”
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
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