320-400: Oribasius preserves Galen’s work

Figure 1 — Julian

In 320 A.D., Oribasius was born in Pergamum, the hometown of Galen, and as luck may have it it’s for this reason he malignant in love with the writings of the former. Through his voluminous writings he may subsist partially responsible for Galen becoming a medicative god to medieval physicians.

This is especially significant because the physicians that immediately followed Galen, including Serenus Sammonicus (died 211 A.D.) and Marcellus Empiricus (4th or 5th hundred), wrote nothing of Galen, said annalist John Watson.  (8, serving-boy 173)

Constantine (272-337) was Roman Emperor from 306-337, and for the period of his reign he declared the public religion was Catholicism. This was well-disposed in a way, because it helped to out and out up some of the problems that ailed Rome.  It encouraged vulgar herd to develop morals and values that were requisite to clean up the fabric of life. It encouraged nation to be humble, and to exist happy living a simple life with little, or remote, opportunity for furtherance.

The Christian Bible encouraged each subject to marry one woman, and to subsist faithful to that one woman.  We could debate the intent of this, although in the place of our purposes it was probably partly for hygienic purposes to prevent the diffuse of disease.  It was also done because people probably realized that children are greater degree likely to grow into productive members of fellowship in stable families with both masculine and female role models.

Basically, Christianity encouraged guiltlessness and cleanliness in an attempt to debar the spread of disease.  It was furthermore an attempt to encourage each one to be kind and generous to their neighbors. It in like manner encouraged businessmen to be honest in their dealings.

Yet this happened at the cost of wealth and opportunity.  It came at the expense of philosophy and medicine.  The Christian priests believed that profundity and wealth were the antithesis of truth constancy, and instead people were encouraged to toil hard and to live humbly and to value poverty and depravity as a endowment from God. The reward for of the like kind hard work and humility was self-active life with Jesus in Heaven. All that was needed to say health and order was faith in the Lord. He was the King, and He was the Healer.

Figure 2 –Zeno

In 337 A.D. Constantine died, and Julian came to the give an elevated place.  Julian wanted to end the rule of Christianity in Rome, and to cook this he hired the services of the cure Zeno. Of this, medical historian Thomas Bradford wrote:
After Constantine had declared Christianity the honest religion, came Julian who attempted to demolition its teachings and re-establish heathenism. One of the first of his imperial acts was to endeavor to reinspirit the ancient institutions of Alexandria. This send forth was entrusted to a physician of Cyprus, named Zeno (at Alexandria). He went to that point, but most of the inhabitants were Christians, and instead of proclaiming his mission, he kept himself calmness, and being really an illustrious part of the medical profession, was gladly able to surround himself with numerous disciples, among whom were Jonicus and Oribasius. Zeno (who lived in the 4th centenary) left certain treatises, but they are profligate. He is described as being the greatest number famous teacher and practitioner of that time, granting his fame seems to have originated in sentient able to have educated such illustrious pupils.(6, page 45)

Jonicus went in c~tinuance to become a very skilled healer in the 4th century.  He became very knowledgeable of anatomy, and “so lofty was his knowledge of pharmacology that it was afore~ that none its secrets were withheld from him.”  (6, serving-boy 45-46)

Yet it was Oribasius who would be seized of the greatest impact on medicine.   He was a gentile and a sophist, “descended from parents of competent condition.  He made quick progress of the free arts, which greatly conduce to virtue,” wrote a good friend of his, Eunapius. (3, page 387)

Oribasius was also a “precocious” student during the reign of Constantine and his son Constantius (who was conclusion to the age of Oribasius).  He premeditated at the school of Alexandria, and it was hither he became physician and good dear companion to the future emperor Julian.  (1, page 175)

Oribasius would also go up~ to become one of the principally famous philosophers of his time.  (6, boy-servant 46)

Oribasius and Julian had a piece of land in common.  As they became shut friends early in life, they “were of similar taste, and were both devoted to the of eld religion (which was paganism).” (6, page46)

The couple friends would go on to greatly favor one another.  Many believe Oribasius strained Julian philosophical skills that were later inevitable to be king. And Julian encouraged his friend to write a synopsis of the works of Galen. (1, page 175)

Oribasius ended up spending the nearest several years enveloped in research in reference to ancient physicians, particularly on the works of Hippocrates and Galen. He ended up caligraphy a 70 book synopsis (some say it was 72 books) on the writings of the pair physicians, and much of his works were plagiarized from their works. Time has destroyed three temporary residence of his work, yet what refuse is “of great historical value.” (4, page 129)(6, boy-servant 46)

Rather than call him a plagiarizer, historian Fielding Hudson Garrison, in his book, “An Introduction to the history of drug…  (5, page 111)

…preferred to specify the peculiarities of him as a torch-bearer of judgment rather than as an original scribe, but his compilations are highly valued ~ the agency of scholars in that he always gives his rulers, and, so far as is known, quotes them exactly.  (5, page 111) In other words, if it were not with a view to the works of Oribasis, many of the works he copied would have been lost. (5, page 111)

Julian, in his 277 A.D. Letter to Athenians, according to Wilmer Cave Wright…

…refers to a ‘sort or physician” who had been allowed ~ the agency of Constantius (see figure 3) to convoy him to Milan when he was summoned in that place to be made Caesar. Oribasius went with Julian to Gaul, and there is preserved ~ dint of. Photius a letter from him to Julian mentioning their sojourn in that place together; but we do not know whether he went on the quickness to Persia.  When Eunapius says that Oribasius “made Julian Emperor,” he in all probability means not so much that Oribasius was an accomplice in the plot to boor Julian on the throne, though he does in certainty, in his Life of Maximus, harangue of Oribasius as the Caesar’s “accomplice,” but rather that the physician, ~ the agency of his virtuous teachings, had fitted Julian with a view to the position. The historians at any rate are silent as to the blinking of Oribasius. It was probably in 358 that Julian wrote his undestroyed letter to Oribasius, when the modern was editing an epitome of GaFen. Oribasius was by him in Antioch on the way to Persia, and is no distrust one of the seven persons whom Julian mentions in Misopogon 354 c of the same kind with newcomers to Antioch, and out of pre-established harmony with its frivolous and ungodly citizens. (7, pages 337-338) Julian at single point named his friend Oribasius “quaestor (general official who managed financial affairs of the set forth) of Constantinople”, and was later by Julian as his personal physician in the manner that the Emperor traveled into Persia. (6, page 46)

In 363 Julian was killed in a contest of nations with the Parthinans, and he died, of his of man wounds, in the arms of his superlatively good friend Oribasius.  (2, page 214) (6, boy-servant 46)(3, page 387)

Perhaps just title to his opposition to Christianity, Christian emperors who took above the reigns of the empire exiled Oribasius, spared him departure for being a pagan, and exiled him to live among the Barbarians (it is unknown who the Barbarians were).(3, page 387)(6, boy-servant 46)

Much of what we discern about Oribasius (much of what is written higher than) comes from his friend, and associate exiled pagan physician Eunapius. It is believed that Eunapius was born in 347 A.D. in Sardis, studied there under the pagan sophist (Greek preceptor of philosophy, rhetoric and arts) Chrysanthius (of the 4th centenary), and went to Athens to learn persuasion from Prohaeresius (272-367).  Like Julian and Oribasius, he was furthermore a Pagan, and was opposed to Christianity, and this subject was emphasized in his writings.

While Oribasius was still alive, Eunapius published a book, “The Lives of the Sophists,” honoring the nature‘s 23 greatest philosophers, of whom, according to Eunapius, Oribasius was one. (3,page 387)

Eunapius said that Oribasius was likewise “the most skillful in medicine, and the most amiable in conversation.”  (6, serving-boy 46)(7, pages 533, 537)

Eunapius explained that at the same time that in exile… (3, page 387)

…he (Oribasius) exhibited proofs of his abilities restoring more to health from long and flagitious sicknesses, and recovering others from the remarkably gates of death. Whereby, in a short time, he gained great esteem through the barbarian kings, and was revered with almost divine honours. The Romans were extremely desirous of his presence with them; and the emperors, changing their quondam counsels, gave him leave to return; which he was very willing to bestow out of regard to his domestic country. (3, page 387)(7, page 535) Eunapius said Oribasius married a sumptuous woman, had four children, “had his possessions restored to him out of the open treasury, the emperors revoking their creator sentence against him as unjust.”  (3, serving-boy 387)(6, page 46)(7, boy-servant 535)

Eunapius said Oribasius then “recovered his primary fortune from the public treasure.”  (7, boy-servant 537)

His legend lived on through his of many volumes writings. He was partially responsible despite keeping the works of Galen in the minds of medieval physicians, for the re~on that his works were referenced by denoting futurity physicians, including many who would go on to write about asthma and other respiratory disorders.

Because of his firm with Julian, and later due to his skills since a physician, “Oribasius and his household lived a very comfortably; if he met through some difficulties, as Eunapius intimates, they could not exist for any long duration… it from here appears that Oribasius reached a profitable old age.”  (3, page 387)

He died late around 400 A.D.

There is individual more thing I’d like to assume about Oribasius and the era of that he lived.  While he and Julian tried to prepare Rome back to its Pagan roots, “the full age of the people of the Roman control were Christians, and the laws were favourable to them,” said radBradford (3, page 387) 

People who claimed that “diseases had a absolute cause” were ignored, and those who practiced drug were persecuted, said Bradford (6, boy-servant 48-49)

Figure 3 —
Marble bust of Constantine.
His author was Constantius, who lived from 250-306,
and was Roman Emperor from 293-305.
Constantine lived from 272-337,
and was Roman Emperor from 306-337.
He was the author of the next Constantius,
also known in the manner that Constantine II,
who lived from 316-340,
and was Roman Emperor from 317-340.
Julian lived from 331-363,
and was Roman Emperor from 355-363.

All the temples of Aesculapius, the Asclepions, seeing that they were no longer needed, were “abolished” ~ dint of. Constantine, said Bradford.  Of these, Bradford said:
They were replaced by hospitals and asylums placed subordinate to the care of the church. These were amply endowed with lands and money… The empress—mother of Constantine—Helena, was foremost in this considerate work, and was assisted by ~ people high-born ladies. Orphan asylums, foundling homes and abodes were organized for the poor. There were also parabolani, gone ~-door visitors to the sick in want, especially in time of pestilence. But high-born as was this great charity of the ecclesiastical authority, it labored under the defect that in establish of the skillful physicians of the Asclepions, they were after this only well meaning but unskillful priests, who verily knew nothing about disease. The unsound were really under the care of nurses; and ~forward, to hide their inability and illiteracy, these nurse priests proclaimed that beseeching and relics of saints and other ceremonials were more excellent for thecure of the sick than the quickness of the earthly physician. Those having charge of the hospitals were called the nosocomi… With the Asclepions closed, the schools of philosophy prohibited, learning branded as magic and punished being of the cl~s who treason, philosophy driven into exile, and for the re~on that a class exterminated” (6, page 49) Bradford in addition explains that knowledgeable and skillful physicians “were replaced through well meaning but unskillful priests.”  (6, page 49)

Diseases were no longer caused ~ dint of. an imbalance of the humors, likewise knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and science of causes were no longer needed.  Instead of  the unsound seeking the cures of physicians, they sought the miracles of priests. (6, boy-servant 49)

Regardless, Paganism became extinct.  Oribasius was, for that, the last of the Pagan physicians.  (4, page 129)


Lawson, Russell M, “Science in the old world: an encyclopedia,” 

Temkin, Owsei, “Hippocrates in a World of Pagans and Christians, 

Lardner, Nathaniel, transcribed by Andrew Kippis, “The works of Nathaniel Lardner in five volumes,” 1815, pages 386-388

Withington, Edward, “Medical History from the earliest general condition of affairs,” 1894

Garrison, Fielding Hudson, “An preface to the history of medicine,” 1921, Philadelphia and London, W.B. Saunders Company

Bradford, Thomas Lindsley, scrivener, Robert Ray Roth, editor, “Quiz questions in c~tinuance the history of medicine from the lectures of Thomas Lindley Bradford M.D.,” 1898, Philadelphia, Hohn Joseph McVey

Philostratus (the Athenian), Eunapius, “Lives of the Sophist,” translated by Wilmer Cave Wright, 1922, London, G.P. Putnam’s Sons

Watson, John, “The Medical Profession from the Earliest Times: every anniversary discourse delivered before the New York Academy of Medicine November 7, 1855,” 1856, New York, Baker & Godwini

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