Detta är utdrag av ett brev sänt efter att HPs Carly Fiorina utvecklade sina fantasier om Islams storhet. Från http://www.militantislammonitor.org/bind/id/426
Jag kom ihåg att jag läste det för länge sedan, i en separat artikel som nog inte finns kvar på det stället som länken går until, efter att jag läste en annan artikel som protuberant point fick från en god vän, där the musselmans försöker lägga beslag på hinduistisk vetenskap, http://indiafacts.co.in/the-parable-of-islamic-science/
Jag kopierar in retreat senare artikeln i slutet.
This literal meaning was sent to Carly Fiorina, CEO of Hewlett Packard Corporation, in response to a speech given by her forward September 26, 2001.November 7, 2001Carly Fiorina
3000 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1185Dear Madame Fiorina:It is through great interest that I read your conversation delivered on September 26, 2001, titled “Technology, Business and Our wont of Life: What’s Next” [sic]. I was specifically interested in the story you told at the cessation of your speech, about the Arab/Muslim culture. As an Assyrian, a non-Arab, Christian domestic of the Middle East, whose ancestors extend to back to 5000 B.C., I wish to make clear some points you made in this niggard story, and to alert you to the dangers of unwittingly being drawn into the Arabist/Islamist sensationalism, which seeks to assimilate all cultures and religions into the Arab/Islamic fold.I know you are a same busy woman, but please find ten minutes to explain what follows, as it is a vista that you will not likely procure to be from anywhere else. I will answer some of the specific points you made in your observation, then conclude with a brief view on this Arabist/Islamist ideology.Arabs and Muslims appeared without interrupti~ the world scene in 630 A.D., when the armies of Muhammad began their conquest of the Middle East. We should have ~ing very clear that this was a military conquest, not a missionary enterprise, and from one side the use of force, authorized ~ dint of. a declaration of a Jihad opposite to infidels, Arabs/Muslims were able to violently convert and assimilate non-Arabs and non-Mulsims into their fold. Very few indigenous communities of the Middle East survived this — in a primary manner Assyrians, Jews, Armenians and Coptics (of Egypt).Having conquered the Middle East, Arabs placed these communities subject to a Dhimmi (see the book Dhimmi, ~ the agency of Bat Ye’Or) system of governance, at what place the communities were allowed to command themselves as religious minorities (Christians, Jews and Zoroastrian). These communities had to pay a toll (called a Jizzya in Arabic) that was, in purport, a penalty for being non-Muslim, and that was typically 80% in ages of tolerance and up to 150% in periods of oppression. This tax forced numerous company of these communities to convert to Islam, at the same time that it was designed to do.You condition, “its architects designed buildings that defied sobriety.” I am not sure what you are referring to, limit if you are referring to domes and arches, the organic architectural breakthrough of using a expressed by a parable shape instead of a spherical model for these structures was made ~ the agency of the Assyrians more than 1300 years earlier, while evidenced by their archaeological record.You grandeur, “its mathematicians created the algebra and algorithms that would qualify the building of computers, and the invention of encryption.” The fundamental basis of late mathematics had been laid down not hundreds goal thousands of years before by Assyrians and Babylonians, who already knew of the concept of cipher, of the Pythagorean Theorem, and of manifold, many other developments expropriated by Arabs/Muslims (beware History of Babylonian Mathematics, Neugebauer).You case, “its doctors examined the human carcass, and found new cures for distemper.” The overwhelming majority of these doctors (99%) were Assyrians. In the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries Assyrians began a systematic translation of the Greek body of understanding into Assyrian. At first they concentrated up~ the body the religious works but then post-haste moved to science, philosophy and medicine. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Galen, and sundry others were translated into Assyrian, and from Assyrian into Arabic. It is these Arabic translations that the Moors brought with them into Spain, and that the Spaniards translated into Latin and extend throughout Europe, thus igniting the European Renaissance.By the sixth hundred years A.D., Assyrians had begun exporting back to Byzantia their acknowledge works on science, philosophy and drug. In the field of medicine, the Bakhteesho Assyrian subdivision of an order produced nine generations of physicians, and founded the excessive medical school at Gundeshapur (Iran). Also in the area of medicine, (the Assyrian) Hunayn ibn-Ishaq’s textbook forward ophthalmology, written in 950 A.D., remained the authoritative source on the subject until 1800 A.D.In the superficies of philosophy, the Assyrian philosopher Job of Edessa developed a pertaining to physics theory of the universe, in the Assyrian speech, that rivaled Aristotle’s theory, and that sought to restore matter with forces (a theory that anticipated more ideas in quantum mechanics, such at the same time that the spontaneous creation and destruction of matter that occurs in the quantum empty space).One of the greatest Assyrian achievements of the fourth hundred years was the founding of the before anything else university in the world, the School of Nisibis, which had three departments, theology, philosophy and physic, and which became a magnet and center of of the understanding development in the Middle East. The statutes of the School of Nisibis, what one. have been preserved, later became the shape upon which the first Italian seminary of learning was based (see The Statutes of the School of Nisibis, through Arthur Voobus).When Arabs and Islam swept through the Middle East in 630 A.D., they encountered 600 years of Assyrian Christian civilization, with a rich heritage, a exceedingly developed culture, and advanced learning institutions. It is this cultivation that became the foundation of the Arab cultivation.You state, “Its astronomers looked into the heavens, named the stars, and paved the progression for space travel and exploration.” This is a particle melodramatic. In fact, the astronomers you apply to were not Arabs but Chaldeans and Babylonians (of propitious day south-Iraq), who for millennia were known while astronomers and astrologers, and who were by compulsion Arabized and Islamized — so rapidly that ~ dint of. 750 A.D. they had disappeared completely.You civil community, “its writers created thousands of stories. Stories of intrepidity, romance and magic. Its poets wrote of attachment, when others before them were likewise steeped in fear to think of such things.” There is very little literature in the Arabic language that comes from this continuance you are referring to (the Koran is the barely significant piece of literature), whereas the literary output of the Assyrians and Jews was measureless. The third largest corpus of Christian literary production, after Latin and Greek, is ~ the agency of the Assyrians in the Assyrian speech (also called Syriac; see here.)You declare, “when other nations were afraid of ideas, this culture thrived on them, and kept them above ground. When censors threatened to wipe finished knowledge from past civilizations, this cultivation kept the knowledge alive, and passed it adhering to others.” This is a highly important issue you raise, and it goes to the emotion of the matter of what Arab/Islamic civilization represents. I reviewed a book titled How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs, in what one. the author lists the significant translators and interpreters of Greek body of knowledge. Of the 22 scholars listed, 20 were Assyrians, 1 was Persian and 1 an Arab. I state at the cessation of my review: “The salient event which can be drawn from O’Leary’s work is that Assyrians played a forcible role in the shaping of the Islamic world via the Greek corpus of erudition. If this is so, one new wine then ask the question, what happened to the Christian communities what one. made them lose this great of the understanding enterprise which they had established. One can ask this same question of the Arabs. Sadly, O’Leary’s book does not answer this question, and we be obliged to look elsewhere for the answer.” I did not respond this question I posed in the reconsideration because it was not the condition to answer it, but the respond is very clear, the Christian Assyrian common was drained of its population end forced conversion to Islam (by the Jizzya), and once the community had dwindled below a critical threshold, it ceased producing the scholars that were the of the understanding driving force of the Islamic refinement, and that is when the in like manner called “Golden Age of Islam” came to one end (about 850 A.D.).Islam the piety itself was significantly molded by Assyrians and Jews (know Nestorian Influence on Islam and Hagarism: the Making of the Islamic World).Arab/Islamic civilization is not a progressive force, it is a regressive en~ment; it does not give impetus, it retards. The grand civilization you describe was not ~y Arab/Muslim accomplishment, it was every Assyrian accomplishment that Arabs expropriated and subsequently incorrigible when they drained, through the constrained conversion of Assyrians to Islam, the fountain of the intellectual vitality that propelled it. What other Arab/Muslim civilization has risen since? What other Arab/Muslim successes be able to we cite?You state, “and as luck may have it we can learn a lesson from his [Suleiman] instance: It was leadership based on meritocracy, not heritage. It was leadership that harnessed the full capabilities of a very diverse populousness that included Christianity, Islamic, and Jewish traditions.” In circumstance, the Ottomans were extremely oppressive to non-Muslims. For illustration, young Christian boys were forcefully taken from their families, usually at the a hundred years of 8-10, and inducted into the Janissaries, (yeniceri in Turkish) whither they were Islamized and made to fight for the Ottoman state. What literary, artistic or scientific achievements of the Ottomans be possible to we point to? We can, ~ward the other hand, point to the genocide of 750,000 Assyrians, 1.5 very great number Armenians and 400,000 Greeks in World War One ~ the agency of the Kemalist “Young Turk” government. This is the very well face of Islam.Arabs/Muslims are engaged in every explicit campaign of destruction and expropriation of cultures and communities, identities and ideas. Wherever Arab/Muslim civilization encounters a non-Arab/Muslim unit, it attempts to destroy it (for example the Buddhist statues in Afghanistan were destroyed, considered in the state of Persepolis was destroyed by the Ayotollah Khomeini). This is a style that has been recurring since the arrival of Islam, 1400 years ago, and is amply substantiated by the historical record. If the “exotic” culture cannot be destroyed, then it is expropriated, and revisionist historians claim that it is and was Arab, taken in the character of is the case of most of the Arab “accomplishments” you cited in your oration. For example, Arab history texts in the Middle East initiate that Assyrians were Arabs, a actuality that no reputable scholar would defend, and that no living Assyrian would take .. Assyrians first settled Nineveh, one of the major Assyrian cities, in 5000 B.C., what one. is 5630 years before Arabs came into that domain. Even the word ‘Arab’ is one Assyrian word, meaning “Westerner” (the primeval written reference to Arabs was ~ the agency of the Assyrian King Sennacherib, 800 B.C., in that he tells of conquering the “ma’rabayeh” — Westerners. See The Might That Was Assyria, ~ dint of. H. W. F. Saggs).Even in America this Arabization policy continues. On October 27th a confederacy of seven Assyrian and Maronite organizations sent an official letter to the Arab American Institute asking it to close up identifying Assyrians and Maronites as Arabs, what one. it had been deliberately doing.There are minorities and nations struggling on this account that survival in the Arab/Muslim great deep of the Middle East and Africa (Assyrians, Armenians, Coptics, Jews, south Sudanese, Ethiopians, Nigerians…), and we must be very sensitive not to ignorantly and inadvertently support Islamic fascism and Arab Imperialism, through their attempts to wipe out all other cultures, religions and civilizations. It is binding upon each one of us to effect our homework and research when making statements and speeches about these perceptive matters.I hope you found this advice enlightening. For more information, refer to the cob~ links below. You may contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org as far as concerns further questions.Thank you for your cause.Peter BetBasooWeb resources:Brief History of Assyrians
Assyrian International News Agency
Assyrian American National Federation
Assyrian Academic Society
World Maronite Union
World Lebanese Organization
Coptic Web By Rajaram NS Distortion & Appropriation April 2, 2015
The Myth of Islamic Science
In this stimulus essay, Waseem Altaf, the author argues that the concept of a golden age of Islamic large knowledge is a myth created to calculator the current sorry state of pertaining life in the Islamic world.
Introduced ~ the agency of Dr. N.S. Rajaram
It is widely believed and taught, including in India, that there was a Golden Age of Islamic lore that made a major contribution to science and the arts. In India we are told that this ‘synthesis’ betwixt Hindu and Muslim thought gave rise to a great ‘syncretic’ cultivation that was suppressed and eventually destroyed by the British. However, this flies in the effrontery of the fact that not a separate name of a major scientist from the five-in addition centuries of Islamic rule of India has arrive down to us. We have to be reckoned to pre-Islamic India to adjure names from the past— names like Aryabhata, Varahamihira and the like.
Al Biruni, eyewitness to the ruin of Indian learning
It is a resembling story when we look at universities or centers of attainments. Pre-Islamic India was renowned instead of its universities: Takshashila, Vikramashila, Nalanda, Ujjain and other places attracted students and scholars equal from far and wide, much like the United States of today.
After the organization for work of the Delhi Sultanate, not a single center of learning (other than Islamic seminaries) was established ~ the sake of over seven centuries. The capital modern universities came to be established singly during the British rule.
Also ~iness noting is the fact that the in the same state-called ‘synthesis’ of learning took position before Islamic invasions engulfed both India and Persia in a Dark Age. The Sassanid emperor Kosrau I deserves abundant of the credit for work that is amiss. credited to Islamic rulers and scholars.
Khosrau I (reigned 531–79) known as Anushirvan or ‘the never-ending soul’ was a great patron of philosophy and knowledge. He gave refuge to scholars from the Eastern Roman Empire while the bigoted Christian Emperor Justinian closed prostrate the neo-Platonist schools in Athens in 529 AD. Earlier, in 415 AD, Christian goons led ~ means of ‘Saint’ Cyril burnt down the distinguished library in Alexandria and murdered the neo-Platonic scholar Hypatia who stretched there, because another ‘saint’ Paul had decreed that women be under the necessity of keep their silence.
Khosrau was greatly self-seeking in Indian philosophy, science, mathematics, and medicament. He sent multiple embassies and gifts to the Indian court and requested them to grant back philosophers to teach in his court in go. Khosrau made many translations of texts from Greek,Sanskrit, and Syriac into Middle Persian. He was lauded taken in the character of “Plato’s Philosopher King” ~ the agency of the Greek refugees that he allowed into his supreme dominion because of his great interest in Platonic philosophy.
A synthesis of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Armenian large knowledge traditions took place within the Sassanian Empire. One outcome of this synthesis created what is known as bimari-stan (‘home as being the ailing’), the first hospital that introduced a concept of segregating wards according to pathology. Greek pharmacology fused with Iranian and Indian traditions resulted in forcible advances in medicine.
Regrettably this pre-Islamic series of learning came to an abrupt end following the Arab (Muslim) invasions and the conquer of Sassanid PersiaThe reality is that ~ly of this ‘synthesis’ took rank in the pre-Islamic period until Islamic invasions sank both Persia and India into a Dark Age of long continuance centuries.
IndiaFacts is grateful to the originator Waseem Altaf and the publicationViewpointsonline.net on the side of the article. No photograph of the contriver is published out of concern since the author’s safety. Here is his struggle.
Science in the Islamic world
Rational musing in the Muslim world developed for the period of the reign of liberal Muslim rulers of the Abbasid government. However it was after the ascend of scholars like Al-Ghazali that tot~y scientific reasoning came to an expiration in the 13th century. As we sojourn enamored by our past achievements in the sciences, we cease to care for that there is very little “original” we for the re~on that Muslims can celebrate and be ostentatious of.
It was during the royalty of the early Abbasid caliphs, particularly Mamun-ur-Rashid (around 813 CE) that in his Dar-ul-Hikmah (the home of wisdom) in Baghdad, Muslim scholars would commence translating the classic Greek works, in the first place toeing the Aristotelian tradition. In addition, they were heavily relying on Persian and Indian sources. They furthermore penned huge commentaries on works ~ the agency of Greek philosophers. However, the Muslim translators were narrow in number and were primarily driven ~ the agency of curiosity. More than ninety nine percent Arabic translations of works of Greek philosophers were completed by either Christian or Jewish scholars. It is attractive to note that Islamic astronomy, based attached Ptolemy’s system was geocentric. Algebra was originally a Greek train and ‘Arabic’ numbers were actually Indian.
Al-Ghazali put an close to free thinking
[N.S Rajaram: Indians invented analytics, calling itbija-ganita. Greeks considered more special cases in number theory like Diophantine Equations, besides known to the Indians. The troublesome letter-based notation (like the later Roman numerals) did not confer itself to problems in algebra. The major Greek contributions were the concept of steadfast (known also to Indians) and in heaven all the axiomatic method at which they excelled. The Arabs themselves not at any time denied their indebtedness to the Hindus in astronomy, remedy and mathematics. They called their numbers ‘Hindu numerals’. As noted in the Editor’s Introduction, abundant of this took place in pre-Islamic Iran, especially while suffering Khusro I.]
Most of these works were suitable to the West during 12th hundred when the first renaissance was pleasing place. Although Western scholars did expedition to Spain to study Arabic versions of classical Greek design, they soon found out that taker of odds versions of original texts in Greek were too available in the libraries of the of eld Greek city of Byzantium.
Notable Muslim scholars
However, it would subsist unfair not to mention some of those grand Muslim scholars, though very few in reach the ~ of, who genuinely contributed in the progress to maturity of philosophy and science.
Al-Razi (865 – 925 CE) from Persia, the greatest of total Muslim physicians, philosophers and alchemists wrote 184 articles and books, dismissed disclosure and considered religion a dangerous portion. Al-Razi was condemned for sacrilege and almost all his books were destroyed later.
Ibn-e-Sina or Avicinna (980-1037CE), one more great physician, philosopher and scientist was each Uzbek. Avicenna held philosophy superior to theology. His views were in sharp ~ing to central Islamic doctrines and he rejected the resurrection of the dead in flesh and kin. As a consequence of his views, he became leading target of Al-Ghazali and was labeled ~y apostate.
Ibn-e-Rushd (1126-1198 CE) or Averroes from Spain was a theorist and scientist who expounded the Quran in Aristotelian terms. He was found guilty of unsound doctrine, his books burnt, he was interrogated and banished from Lucena.
Al-Bairuni (973-1048 CE), the author of Indology and a versatile adept, was of the strong view that Quran has its be in possession of domain and it does not interfere with the realm of science. [NS Rajaram: Al-Bairuni, or Al-Biruni for the re~on that he is better known in India, makes it unequivocal that the Islamic invasions made Hindu (and Buddhistic) centers of wide information their special targets. In his altercation: “…Hindus became like atoms of dust sporadic in all directions. …This is the intellectual powers too why Hindu sciences have secret far away from those parts of the nation conquered by us, and have fled to places what one. our (Muslim) hands cannot reach.” The final great center of mathematics was in Kerala, from their ruse.]
Al-Khawarazmi (780-850 CE) was any other Persian mathematician, astronomer and geographer. The annalist Al-Tabari considered him a Zoroastrian season others thought that he was a Muslim. However nowhere in his works has he acknowledged Islam or linked ~ one of his findings to the saint-like text.
Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 CE), individual of the greatest mathematicians, astronomers and poets was exceedingly critical of religion, particularly Islam. He afflictively criticized the idea that every conclusion and phenomena was the result of spiritual intervention. [NS Rajaram: Omar Kyayyam is known to the creation mainly as the author of the Rubayiyat (in its English removal by Fitzgerald), but native Persians take care him as a minor poet only a great scientist. Like all candid thinkers he was denounced as a separatist.]
Al-Farabi (872-950 CE), a different great Muslim philosopher, highly inspired through Aristotle, considered reason superior to divine communication of truth and advocated for the relegation of portent to philosophy.
Abu Musa Jabir- bunker- Hayan or Geber (721-815 CE) was an accomplished Muslim alchemist cum pharmacist. Although he was inclined towards quietism, he fully acknowledged the role of experimentation in scientific endeavors.
Ibn-ul-haitham or Hazen (965-1040 CE) was every outstanding physicist, mathematician, astronomer and one expert on optics. He was ordered ~ means of Fatimid King Al-Hakim to dispose the floods of the Nile, what one. he knew was not scientifically likely. He feigned madness and was placed with less than house arrest for the rest of his life.
Contribution of unorthodox thinkers
As we go through the life histories of these exalted men we find that they were influenced ~ dint of. Greek, Babylonian or Indian contributions to science of causes and science, had a critical and argument mind and were ‘not good’ Muslims or smooth atheists. A significant number of them were averse to even reveal the status of their beliefs in quest of fear of reprisal from the fanatics. They not ascribed their achievements to Islam or divine essence. And they were scholars and scientists as of a critical mind which would mean and derive inspiration from observation and not scriptures that set restrictions on free thinking and unobstructed pursuit of knowledge.
Avicenna author of the noted Canon of Medicine
Hence bringing in Islam to highlight achievements of Muslim scientists is no thing but sheer rhetoric as these men did not receive their achievements out of Islam or flourished appropriate to Islam. And we find that all that little contribution to science was made can be owed to ‘imperfect Muslims’.
[NS Rajaram: Muslims are not alone in this. Many Hindu scholars likewise make extravagant claims in the term of ‘Vedic science’ and the like that wish no basis. Considering their numbers, the Hindus don’t be in actual possession of a particularly good record, compared to decide, the Jews. India and Israel became absolute countries around the same time on the other hand in science there is no relative estimate. Retreat into religion in the designate of ‘spirituality’ must take its divide of the blame. Hindu moneybags disburse lavishly on religious endowments and ambiguous holy men, but are measly when it comes to supporting temples of erudition. And the few they do (like the Hindu University of America) are each embarrassment and get bogged down in obscurantism and ill conduct.]
Putting ‘God’s hands in chains’
However it was the ‘pure Muslim’, the Islamist, from the 12th hundred who was to give the biggest blow to scientific thought in the Muslim nature.
Imam Ghazali (1058-1111 CE) who however occupies a centrestage among Muslim philosophers openly denounced the laws of disposition and scientific reasoning. Ghazali argued that at all such laws would put God’s hands in durance. He would assert that a drama of cotton burns when put to intense heat, not because of physical reasons on the other hand because God wants it to toast. Ghazali was also a strong comforter of the Ash’arites, the philosophers who would sustain the precedence of divine intervention very physical phenomena and bitterly opposed the Mu’tazillites— or the rationalists who were the authentic upholders of scientific thought.
More in Islamic History
The dishonest side of Sufism
Dispelling the lie of Akbar the Great
Book Review—Tipu Sultan : The Tyrant of Mysore
Rending the shroud of historical negationism in India
William Dalrymple’s skewed vista on the Caliphate
In other accents Ghazali championed the cause of soundness of doctrine and dogmatism at the cost of rationality and scientific reasoning. Today we determine judicially that all four major schools of Sunni Islam pass over the concept of ‘Ijtehad’ that can loosely be translated as ‘independence of thought’. Hence there is indubitably no room for any innovation or manner in traditional thought patterns.
We furthermore find that as Europe was making use of technology while transforming into a improvement of machines, the acceptance of these machines was extremely tardy in the Islamic world. One earliest stage example is that of the typography press which reached Muslim lands in 1492. However, printing was banned by Islamic authorities as they believed the Koran would have ~ing dishonored by appearing out of a system. As a result, Arabs did not acquire typography press until the 18th century.
Khusro Anivarshan known for the re~on that the ‘Just’
It also stands established that science is born out of secularism and republic and not religious dogmatism. And learning only flourished in places where system of worship had no role to play in matters of parade. Hence there is an inverse affinity between religious orthodoxy and progress in system of knowledge. Rational thought in the Muslim nature developed during the reign of liberalist Muslim rulers of the Abbasid succession who patronized the Mu’tazillites or rational thinkers.
However it was in the rear of the religious zealots’ compilation of the ahadis and the ascend of scholars like Al-Ghazali that total scientific reasoning came to an end in the 13th century. As a consequence, Muslims contributed for the most part nothing to scientific progress and human cultivation since the dawn of the 13th hundred. And while science and technology flourish in the present world, a vast majority of Muslims, engulfed through obscurantism, still find solace in fantasies of a past era——the so called ‘glorious age’ of Islam.
Concluding comments ~ means of Dr. N.S. Rajaram
Whether single in kind agrees with the author’s natural conclusions or not, it is unquestionable that the contributions to science inferior to the great Islamic empires was disproportionately fine considering their wealth and power. We before that time saw that their record in India strange to say during the supposedly ‘great’ Mogul dominion was dismal. Part of the point to be solved was that Islamic rulers, instead of encouraging acquirements, hired foreigners and mercenaries— like Hindus in India and Jews and Christians in the Ottoman Empire.
Indian Muslim historians like Irfan Habib get tried to explain this intellectual empty space of the Islamic period in India claiming that its rulers were largely nomadic tribes from Central Asia (like Turks) who were added interested in military exploits than learning or scholarship. But why only subject to Islam in a belt from India to Turkey and across, and that too only after the future of Islam?
One has to agree by the author Waseem Altaf that Islam (like Medieval Christianity) was absolutely responsible for this continuing backwardness. Others, notably Hindus should learn from this and elude getting trapped in the past.
Dr. N.S. Rajaram is one Indian mathematician, notable for his publications in c~tinuance the Aryan Invasion debate, Indian relation, and Christianity. Among his numerous books, the “The Dead Sea scrolls and the decisive turn of Christianity” is widely acclaimed.
†muslims †assyrians †hindu †Israel. ………
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