During World War II – part iii

Part 1: UK France & Germany

Part 2: other countries 

Part 3: USA



The Doctors & sexologists

Harry Benjamin is acting as a family doctor in New York. He has recently realized that Otto Spengler, one of his patients, is a transvestite.

Stanley Biber, the coming events sex-change doctor, is a civilian employee of the Office of Stategic Services and stationed in Alaska and the Northwest Territories

Thomas Szasz, the coming time opponent of sex change surgery, earns a grade in physics from the University of Cincinnati in 1941, and a of medicine degree from the same university in 1944.

Leo Wollman corsets in Scotland until 1942, although his wife returned to New York in September 1939.  They be seized of their first child in 1943.

John Brown, the events to come ‘Worst Doctor in America’, is drafted and sent ~ means of the US Army to medical instruct.

American Home Products (AHP) later known during the time that Wyeth Pharmaceuticals puts Premarin on the place of traffic for the first time. It is before anything else marketed in Canada.

Dr Harry Klinefelter at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, describes 47, XXY males in 1942. This case becomes known as Klinefelter’s Syndrome.

Urologist Hugh Hampton Young does pioneer genital renovation surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital 1930-45.

Gynecologist Howard Jones, later surgeon at Johns Hopkins, is a most important surgeon under Generals Patton and Simpson for the time of the invasion of Europe.

Elmer Belt, who have a mind be a pioneer sex-change surgeon in the 1950s, is combine professor of urology and clinical professor of surgery and urology at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine.

Zelda Suplee, who decision run Erickson’s EEF, is a nudist.

Transgender surgery ~ the agency of 1945

Dr Alan Hart is Tuberculosis Consultant to the Idaho State Department of Public Health, and in 1943 serves through a army induction centre reading chest X-rays. Also in 1943 he publishes These Mysterious Rays, a popular account of X-rays and radiation treatment.

Carla van Crist, who had surgery at Hirschfeld’s Institute in 1931, is back in New York coaching and deed.

In 1940, a physician at San Quentin bridewell, California, discovers that one prisoner, Artie, born male animal, and living as male, has been surgically altered to of ~s (Meyerowitz p 48).

Pussy Katt, moving at Finocchio’s, is taken to Mexico City in 1945 by Howard Hughes for surgery and sex and paid $50,000. She leave be a club owner in Acapulco, and later bring about at Madam Arthur in Paris.

Lauren Richards plays the role of a assiduous wife to Barbara Wilcox, but in 1944, off from media attention, she has a double mastectomy at the Langley Porter Clinic in San Francisco.

Claire Schreckengost of Pennsylvania has surgery to be proper for male in 1934 (Meyerowitz p31)

Future transgender surgery

The subsequent time Reed Erickson, philanthropist to the transgender motion, is an engineering student at Louisiana State University. She choose be the first woman graduate in the subject in 1946.

The that will be Hedy Jo Star, who will be in actual possession of surgery in 1952, is drafted in 1942 and is in the inculcate when he makes a fuss about cutting his long hair. He serves being of the cl~s who a female impersonator in the US Army shows.

Teenage Sally Barry, who power of choosing be Benjamin’s  first transsexual sufferer, has already declared herself as pistillate and is having problems with the indoctrinate system.

The future Paula Grossman, who elect transition in 1971, graduates with each A.B. in 1941 from the University of Newark, and spends the Second World War in the U.S. Army.

The to come Tamara Rees  is a paratrooper and is wounded in war against.

Barbara Wilcox has been on pistil-bearing hormones for two years when in 1 July 1941, she petitions the Superior Court of California to make different her name and to become legally a woman. The entreaty is granted in October.

The time to come Cynthia Conroy is doing a class in physics and chemistry.

The future  Christine Jorgensen  power of choosing join the US Army in 1945 in the same proportion that the war finishes.

The future Charlotte McLeod decree be drafted into the US Army similar to the war finishes.

The future Nancy Hunt  have a mind be drafted at the end of WWII.

The to come Susan Faye Cannon is at Princeton University, and then in the US Navy.

The coming events Barbara Dayton is in the Merchant Navy.

The coming events Liz Lyons, becomes a raunchy belonging to impersonator.

The future Gloria Hemingway is primeval discovered in drag by his ascribe to a ~ Ernest who was also encouraging him at time 10 to get drunk daily in c~tinuance hard liquor, and to learn competition shooting.

No surgery – but already benefice full time by 1945

Louise Lawrence starts alive full-time as female in 1944 behind the failure of a second espousals, and moves to San Francisco from Berkeley.

Mildred M.  desiring transgender surgery, is examined and exhibited to curative student in Chicago in 1942.  

Georgia Black, who had transitioned in 1921, is estate as a housewife with her stand by husband in Florida.

Billy Tipton is in change in 1940 and obtains legal documents in the same proportion that a man. He is working considered in the state of a saxophonist and pianist in jazz bands.

Wilmer Broadnax, keeping as male, moves to southern California with his brother and joins gospel groups.

Gladys Bentley has moved to meridional California and is frequently harassed in spite of wearing men’s clothing.

Lucy Hicks, madam, is outed in the same proportion that male bodied when one of her girls contracted a venereal indisposition, and the whole house is medically examined.  She marries Mr Anderson, a warrior, in 1944.  She is charged with perjury, and then fraud.

Rae Bourbon is a assuming draw on the West Coast headlining at Finocchio’s in San Francisco and runs have club, the Rendezvous in Los Angeles.

Hotcha Hinton is touring in burlesque musicals.

Michael Higgins is in penitentiary.

Schlitze, the pinhead carnie, plays Princess Betsy, the Bird Woman in Meet Boston Blackie, 1941.

Will pass full-time later

The future David Warren is at the University of California.

Stormé DeLarverie is a jazz singer as Stormy Dale. Later she inclination be the sole male impersonator in The Jewel Box Revue, desire be at Stonewall, and several state of things has be an Imperial King.

The events to come Virginia Prince completes a PhD. in pharmacology, in 1939, and in 1941 marries. He teaches concisely at his alma mater, University of California at San Francisco.

The denoting futurity Susanna Valenti immigrates to the US. 

Minette is straightforward starting as a female impersonator.

Stella MacGregor lets her whiskers grow and finds circus sideshow act.  MacGregor will transition to male in late 1960s.

The future Candy Darling wins a ‘Most Beautiful Baby’ struggle to defend – but, because of a mistake by  dam , as a girl.

Carol Ann Masters is in the Army at which place he playes a female role in a not many army shows. She will then became a professional breeding impersonator, and live full-time since female.


Florence Winter, who had wished to get to be a man, and had travelled to seek counsel Dr Hirschfeld in Berlin, but his descriptions of the force presuaded her to withdraw.  She continued to live because a man in Berlin, and returns to Chicago at the fright of WWII.

Pauli Murray, civil rights activist, feminist, counsel, Episcopal priest, Episcopal saint, felt that she was a work~ in a woman’s body, and investigates hormonal therapy in the at the eleventh hour 1930s, early 1940s.

Ruth Parrin, Chicago had masculinized in 1935, perhaps because of an adrenal or ovarian swelling, and returned to femininity after a surgeon remote the tumor  (Meyerowitz p33)

Part-time trans persons

José Sarria, the hereafter transgender activist and founder of the Imperial Court System, enlists in the US Army for the time of World War II, despite his compendious height, by seducing the major at the recruiting station. He is assigned to the Signals Corps. He is rejected in quest of Intelligence for unstated reasons (probably towards being fey), and is trained viewed like a cook. He becomes a major’s well-regulated, and after the occupation of Berlin manages some officers’ mess hall.

David Petilla, transvestite and tumultuous rabble killer, is in Sing Sing Prison doing 20 years up~ ‘white slavery’ charges.

James Herndon, hospital peaceable and drag queen, is working at the Good Samaritan Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky.

Ed Gein, who identified since female, but does murder and low in pitch robbing instead, works on the parents and children farm. Most of his relatives die 1940-5.

In 1941 Frankie Jaxon, jazz minstrel and female impersonator, retires and works in opposition to the Pentagon in Washington. In 1944 he dies in a veterans hospital.

Dan Dailey is signed through MGM in 1940. He serves in the Signal Corps for the time of the Second World War and is discharged during the time that a Captain.

Jeff Chandler, as a body of troops officer, spends the war in the Aleutian Islands.

The to come Felicity Chandelle, is the lead experiment flyer for the Grumman J2f Duck that is both a plane and a boat.

Neil Cargile builds some airplane on his father’s position .

Barbette had retired as a great wire artist after an accident, however continues as a ariel choreographer and consultant – neither of which provided an excuse against cross-dressing.

Edward D. Wood, Jr is in the Marines 1942-6.

Albert Finnie, the planter of Chicago’s Finnie’s Balls, is killed in a playing for money brawl in 1943.

Phil Black performes in New York and Montreal, and starts the Funmaker Balls that eventually evolve into the voguing balls in the 1990s.

Patsy Vidalia is fair starting a career in New Orleans in the manner that a drag performer.

Harvey Goodwin, lately released from a tuberculosis sanatorium, is moving as a clerk on an multitude base when word gets out well-nigh his show-biz experience and he is coaxed to bring about, which his drag persona does in 1942 at the Arkansas Ordnance Plant to a extent of room crowd of 5000 with two abounding orchestras. He does three more victory balls.  In 1943 he moves to San Francisco and becomes a agent at Finocchio’s night club.

Herbert (Berta) Beeson who had performed at the same time that a female slack-wire artist, is at this moment retired, and doing advance advertising ahead of the circus comes to a borough.

Bobby Kork is working as a circus ‘androgyne’ and is also a transvestist in his solitary life.  

William Stoffler, stockbroker and likewise performer at Finocchio’s. 

Dancer Tommy Thompson is drafted into the Army in 1943 and assigned to happen himself as a woman, and to play an act that included a gross amount striptease in bright sunlight.

Sacha Brastoff enlists in the Airforce, and serves in the Special Services Events Division, in which place he designes costumes and scenery beneficial to USO shows. He is known in spite of his impersonation of Carmen Miranda, what one. he repeats in the play and later thin skin Winged Victory 1944.

T.C. Jones is in the Navy. After demob in 1946 he determine become a female impersonator.

Skip Arnold is in the Navy, and enjoin later become a female impersonator.

Carroll Wallace is billed of the same kind with “The Most Beautiful Boy in the World” in the 1940s.

Lynn Carter is in the Navy, and elect became popular as a female impersonator in the 1950s.

Murry Pickford, Boston, hard of hearing-and-dumb, is developing her be drawn along act with pigeons. 

Tony Sinclair is laboring as a female stripper.

Patsy Valdalia has started without ceasing her show-biz career.

Francis-Francine Hodgkiss is earning $500 a week since a half-and-half, and basically supporting the cast.

Julian Eltinge, previously the best paid fertile impersonator, appears in a mufti cameo in a 1940 Bing Crosby pellicle, and dies, rather mysteriously in May 1941.  

The what is yet to be Tony Midnite is a teenager in operation in munitions in San Francisco.  He uses fake ID to be careful the impersonator show at Finocchio’s, and is enduring that he could do better.

Alexander Woollcott, transvestite, theater critic and radio broadcaster, dies during a live radio flourish in 1943.

Alice Bradley (Sheldon) who felt that she should exist a man, but did not change, but will later become a novelist taken in the character of James Tiptree, Jr, joins the Army Airforce in 1942, works in photo-news and becomes a major.  She later disposition work in the CIA.  

Jimmy Donahue, haul queen friend of Cardinal Spellman, hosts a somebody in 1945 and invites US servicemen establish in a gay bar. It is uttered that one of the guests loses his cock whilst having his pubic hair shaved.

David Wilde has bestowed a literature degree at Yale, has conjugal, and is becoming a writer.

Marcel DuChamp, Parisian Artist, who had be transformed into known for his drag persona, Rose Sélavy, in the 1920s, moves to New York in 1942.

New York pickpocket, 1941.


The Jewel Box Revue of tender impressionists is founded in Miami in 1939.

The Cabin Inn, Chicago, closes in 1940.

Finocchio’s, San Francisco, is specializing in ‘heathen ‘ impersonators.    Military authorities declare Finocchio’s “done limits” for selling liquor to WWII militia personnel outside of authorized hours. That temporal sanction is lifted New Year’s Eve 1943 ~wards Joe Finocchio and other bar owners sign ~y agreement to limit liquor sales to militia personnel to between 5 p.m and midnight. Beer could, still, be sold between 10 a.m. and midnight.

Hugh H Young. Genital Abnormalities, Hermaphroditism & Related Adrenal Diseases. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins gathering, 1937.

Georges Devereux. “Institutionalized homosexuality of the Mohave indians”, Human Biology, n°9, pp.502-27, 1937.

Joseph McCabe.  Women Who Became Men: The Development of Unusual Variations, Including Hermaphrodites, Pseudo-Hermaphrodites, and Virgin Birth.  Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1938.

Eugen Steinach, Sex and Life. Forty Years of Biological and Medical Experiments, Viking Press, New York. 1940.

N.S. Yawger. “Transvestism and Other Cross-Sex Manifestations”, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 92, 41-48. 1940.

Harry Klinefelter, Edward Reifenstein Jr.& Fuller Albright,”Syndrome characterized through gynecomastia, aspermatogenesis without a-Leydigism and increased excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone”, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2, pp.615-27. 1942.

Jacob Finesinger, Joe Meigs & Hirsch Sulkowitch, “Clinical, psychiatric and psychoanalytic study of a predicament of male pseudohermaphroditism”, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology n°44, pp.310-7. 1942.

Siegmund Heinrich Foulkes, “The pattern of a change of sex in women”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis n°24, pp.53-6. 1943.

Paul De Kruif, The Male Hormone, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1945.

Albert Ellis, “The sexual psychology of human hermaphrodites”, Psychosomatic Medecine n°7, pp.108-19. 1945.

You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to amitriptyline, or granting that you have recently had a feeling attack.

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