Islams gyllene ålder, fall – och nu.

Jag läste proper en intressant artikel, nedan. Den talar om Islams gyllene ålder när världen åkte to the time of Bagdad för att studera allt möjligt, inte bara the moslems som nu. Hur muslimska Andalusien därefter in the state flera hundra år var det kulturella centrat i Europa medan disagreeing primitiva stammar vandrade omkring i övriga Europa och until och med lyckades hugga bilder av båtar i sten som i Sverige. Och hur sedan, i renässansens dagar Europa började få civilisation och kultur från Andalusien, tills Spanien åter blev kristet och drev ut alla andra.

Vad händer idag? Sisis viktiga tal place of resort första januari till den islamska världen, som alla svenska media undvikit att nämna länk, förälskade i enstaka terroristattacker och oförmögna att tänka på två saker samtidigt. EU hade kunnat lära mycket om the moslems där och hur vi kan hjälpa dem modernisera i Sisis anda. Men det enda är att öka antalet poliser utan att tänka vidare, så varför gjorde det inte innan? Inte dags att börja tänka istället för att förhärliga muslimerna i rädsla för dem?

ISIS förbjuder annat än the moslems och jihad i sina skolor länk – filosofi och kemi, och övrigt ”gud inte älskar” tas bort.

Siffror refererar until fotnoter.

What al-Sisi Didn’t decide at Al-Azhar University

Once Islam led the earth in intellectual and cultural activity, a similar to well as economic and military might. Then it closed its doors.

Published: Saturday, January 17, 2015 

Mark Silverberg

The author is a foreign policy analyst despite the Ariel Center for Policy…

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In an extraordinary speech (translated onRaymond Ibrahim’s blog and potentially unnoticed by the world media) delivered without ceasing New Year’s Day by Egypt’s President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi to the devout imams of Cairo’s Al-Azhar University, al-Sisi called as far as concerns an Islamic religious Renaissance, the power of which would be to change the “corpus of texts and ideas that we receive (made sacred) over the years” to the promontory that “we have antagonized the entire world.”
He exhorted the imams: “You cannot be conscious of being it if you remain trapped not above this mindset. You need to step superficial of yourselves to be able to mention it and reflect on it from a other enlightened perspective….. Is it in posse that 1.6 billion people [Muslims] should not to be present to kill the rest of the world’s inhabitants – that is 7 billion – in the same manner that they themselves may live? Impossible! I saw and repeat again that we are in destitution of a religious revolution. You, imams, are responsible before Allah. The entire world ………. is abeyance for your next move …. for the cause that this umma is being torn, it is vital principle destroyed, it is being lost – and it is reality lost by our own hands.”


Today, the Arab cosmos is constituted by a series of twenty-single in kind failed states bereft, for the in the greatest degree part, of progressive leaders and incapable to produce one single manufactured effect that can compete on world markets.
As he was speaking, other related events were transpiring in ISIS-controlled Syria and Iraq that dovetailed with al-Sisi’s remarks. In Raqqa (arctic Syria) and Mosul (Iraq), ISIS has ordered schools closed space of time the curriculum is being made to adjust with what the radical Islamic organized existence considers “sacred religious educational rules”. These “rules” effectively prohibitory penalty the study of philosophy, sports, science of nature, chemistry, fine arts, music, civics, familiar studies, history and psychology like ISIS maintains that these are “infidel” subjects that “answer not fit in with the laws of God” (for example noted by the Syrian Observatory toward Human Rights, a London-based monitoring clump).

At Al-Azhar, Al-Sisi spoke of the frightful violence around the world perpetrated in the speak of of Allah by radical Islamist organizations like ISIS, Boko Haram, al Qaeda, al-Shabab, the Taliban, and others, further he might have also directed his accents to a comparison with another Islamic era a millennium ago that promoted the extremely same intellectual ideas that ISIS has banned – ideas and achievements that numerous noted scholars and historians (Muslim and in other respects) attribute to the “Golden Age of Islam.”

The Decline of the Islamic cosmos

The religious zealotry that propels today’s underived Islamists can only be explained in the reach the context of history. The odyssey that has carried the Arab Muslim globe from the heights of its primitive glory to its modern day gorge is a story that spans fourteen hundred years and innumerable humiliations most of what one. can be traced to its have failings.

There was a time at the time that Europeans, seeking enlightenment and learning, premeditated at the feet of Islamic scholars. It is a time long-past but not forgotten by Muslims like al-Sisi who feel a strong desire for an Islamic religious (and mental) renaissance.

Since its Golden Age for the time of the Moorish Empire a millennium past, Islamichistory has been in an fixed tailspin that has led to a agri~ of victimhood and death fueled ~ means of religious hatred, sectarian violence, centuries of solitude from Western enlightenment, and an overwhelming all but mystical desire to restore past glories.

Today, the Arab earth is constituted by a series of twenty-individual failed statesbereft, for the most lot, of progressive leaders and unable to render one single manufactured product that can compete on world markets. Far from existence an enlightened civilization, it has be turned into a cultural backwater replete with huge poverty, repressive governments, vast illiteracy, medieval laws, boil Islamist anger and a Gross Domestic Product not so much than that of (coincidentally) Spain.

It has not perpetually been that way.

The Golden Age of Islam

Islam arose in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th hundred years. Like Christianity, it officially condemned farfetched conversions, but unlike Christianity, Islam instructed its followers to ensure that the world was under the political control of the Faithful. Hence, Islam’s national domination could be, and was, circulation by the sword. Islamic cavalries explode out of Arabia and quickly took repress of the Middle East, Byzantium and Persia. The Middle Eastern armies of the Christian Byzantine Empire were defeated and annihilated in 636, and Jerusalem sanguinary in 638.

By the early 8th centenary Arab Islamic forces had conquered North Africa, reached the Straits of Gibraltar and crossed into Visigothic Spain. By 712, they had reached the center of the Iberian Peninsula, and ~ dint of. the 730’s, they were raiding great into the heart of France to the time when defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732.1 Gradually retreating ~erly over a period of centuries, they eventually consolidated their endowment in southern Spain.

There, over the next eight hundred years, the Arabs managed to evolve a majestic civilization on the Iberian peninsula – a refinement that came to be known to the degree that Andalusia. For Muslims, Al Andalus (Andalusia) dead body not only a symbol of vanished renown, but a kind of alternative sight of Islam – a vision sought by Islamics today but unattainable in the present era unless Islam itself is totally reformed.2 

In The Age of Faith writer of history Will Durant wrote: “For five centuries, from 700 to 1200, Islam led the universe in power, in refinement of carriage, in standards of living; in proper to man legislation and religious tolerance; in lore, scholarship, science, medicine, and philosophy.”

The Arabs of Andalusia in south Spain (known as “Moors” sense “dark” – a negative phrase referring to the Berbers who came from Morocco) treated Christians and Jews with tolerance, enabling them to live, operate and learn together in relative quietness and harmony. While Europe was struggling through the throes of feudalism, the Moorish aristocracy was promoting private land ownership and encouraging banking. However, grant that there was little or no Muslim proselytizing, societal restrictions on infidels were imposed.3

Nevertheless, considered in the state of Bernard Lewis has noted, for centuries the worldview and self-view of Arab Muslims seemed entirely justified. The Moorish Empire of Andalusia represented the greatest warlike and economic power in the universe, trading in a wide range of goods through a far-flung network of communication and communications in Asia, Europe, and Africa; importing slaves, gold and other wares from Africa, wool from Europe, and exchanging a class of foodstuffs, materials, and manufactured furniture with the civilized nations of Asia. The Moors improved business and agriculture, patronized the arts, made estimable contributions to science, and established Cordoba like the most sophisticated city in Europe.

Inheriting and translating the scholar-like works of the Greeks and Persians, they added renovated and important innovations from outside, similar as the use and manufacture of bank-notes from China and the decimal body imported from India.4

Within the compass of two hundred years, the Moors had turned Andalusia into a bastion of improvement, commerce and beauty. Irrigation systems imported from Syria and Arabia turned the dull plains of the peninsula into an agricultural cornucopia. To native olives and wheat, the Moors added fruits and herbs from everywhere the known world – pomegranates, oranges, lemons, artichokes, cumin, coriander, bananas, tonsils, henna, saffron, sugar-cane, cotton, rice, figs, grapes, peaches, apricots and rice considered in the state of standard crops.

While Europe descended into feudalism, Andalusian homes featured marble balconies during the term of summer and hot-air ducts in the state their mosaic floors for the winter. They were adorned with gardens with artificial fountains and orchards. Paper, a weighty still unknown to the West, was in all lands; here. There were bookshops throughout Andalusia and besides than seventy libraries.5 The magnificent library of Cordova held an estimated 600,000 manuscripts.

By the cessation of the first millennium, Cordoba had be converted into the intellectual well from which Europeans came to drink. Students and scholars allied traveled from France and England to dwell at the feet of Muslim, Christian and Jewish scholars to learn philosophy, science and medicine.

It was in Moorish Spain that Muslim mathematicians utilized decimals in the room of fractions on a large layer, and Hindu numerals were, for the in the ~ place time, incorporated in the inherited material substance of mathematical learning.  Today, they are known viewed like “Arabic numerals.” Even the general of “zero” (sifr) came from the Arabic translations of Andalusia.6

To this copious inheritance, Andalusian Islamic scholars and scientists added some immensely important contribution through their acknowledge observations, experiments and ideas.  In principally of the arts and sciences of civilization, medieval Europe was a pupil and, in a apprehension, a dependent of the Islamic world, relying on Arabic translations for before unknown Greek works. While medieval Europe floated up~ a sea of superstition, illiteracy and atrocity, Andalusians was busying themselves probing the limits of the arts, the cosmos and the sciences rather than lodging on victimization (as the Arab globe does today).

Islamic texts broke repaired ground in the fields of remedial agent, astrology, astronomy, pharmacology, psychology, physiology, zoology, biology, botany, mineralogy, optics, belles-lettres, architecture, sociology, philosophy, metallurgy, animal thrift, physics, mathematics (notably algebra, geometry and trigonometry), melody, meteorology, geography, mechanics, hydrostatics, navigation and annals.

But what really caused the intellectual bombshell to explode were the Arabic commentaries up~ the Greek translations of Aristotle. These analyses and theorems shocked the West by giving religion and philosophy equal rank to rational, scientific thought in explaining the creation of the universe.7 Most historians of the duration agree that these debates and the conversion to an act of scientific logic sparked what came to have ~ing known as the European Renaissance.

Unlike those in the Arab world today who seek to establish a global Islamic caliphate based immediately after a narrow regressive, radical interpretation of the Quran and the Hadith (its commentaries) like ISIS, Boko Haram, al-Shabab, al-Qaeda and other primitive letter Islamist organizations, the Moors of Spain encouraged unrestricted thought, experimentation, discussion and evaluation.

Islamic Spain produced scientists and scholars who enhanced the character of the astrolabe not just to decide prayer times, but to serve considered in the state of an astronomical guide to those who navigated the world’s oceans making it possible to establish both length and latitude.

Andalusian scientists advanced the be of the Greeks in the expansion of the magnetic compass and ascertained the earth’s circumference.

They produced books on astronomical tables that were used ~ means of European scientists for the next four centuries.

Andalusian Arabs coined the entitle “Algebra” (Kitab al-jabr wa l-muqabala –written by Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi in 825 CE) and the basic trigonometric functions of sine, cosine and tangent.

And it was from the Andalusian philosophers, Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Ibn Sina (Avicenna) from whom august Christian scholars like St. Thomas Aquinas (who served as vicar provincial in Andalusia) drew the philosophies and concepts that eventually laid the foundations because the European Renaissance.

The Moors furthermore made great advances in the domain of modern surgery. They put the study of healing art on a scientific footing by eliminating superstition, introduced medical Codes of Conduct, and required the introductory treatise of examinations and the taking of the Hippocratic Oath.

In the 9th century, an Andalusian physician was the before anything else to diagnose smallpox and measles and rehearse them to the concept of “contagious” diseases (which, until that time, had been meditation to originate only from within the body itself); and it was an Andalusian healer who pioneered the use of sutures made of denizen of the deep gut to bind wounds.

Andalusian scientists constructed the principal “globe” of the known globe; broke new ground in the department of modern chemistry (or alchemy – a derivative of the Arabic word al Kimiya) – including the unfolding of dosage standards (prescriptions) for patients and the performance of chemical preparations for medicines. They developed the tables outlining the “angles of refraction” capital to an explanation of, among other things – shaded, established laboratories for long term experimentation and pioneered unused methods of observation and measurement.

Andalusian Arabic scholars in like manner left an intellectual imprint in the heavens to the degree that one can readily see when study of books the names of the stars on a modern-day celestial globe. And inasmuch as of this flood of knowledge flowing from Andalusian scholars, the first universities began to wear the ~ance. College and university degrees were developed side by side with corresponding textbooks. Arabic music be dispersed throughout Europe, giving us the keyboard, the flute and the general of harmony.8

The translations of the works of the Moors continued strange to say as the Moorish Empire broke apart into feuding factions. In the end, like the other Empires of chronicle, Andalusia fell in 1492 to the Catholic princes of Castille and the counts of Barcelona in the Reconquista.

The Great Arab Decline

With the end of the Golden Age of Islam, the famed Arab decline began. Rather than acknowledging the large knowledge revolution brought forth by the European Renaissance, Islamic leaders scoffed at it in the infallible belief that there was nothing to subsist learned from these infidel upstarts.

Over the interjacent centuries, Islam became narcissistic and withdrew not more than itself.

In 1485, the printing approach unseasonably (a symbol of the Enlightenment) was banned from the Ottoman Empire through decree.  Arnaud de Borchgrave has written that while Napoleon arrived in Egypt, in 1798, Cairo did not be seized of a single printing press. By on that account the European intelligentsia had long considering embarked upon self-improvement through books and wide information for almost two centuries while the Ottoman Empire languished.

The Muslims who were expelled from Andalusia took shelter mainly in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, limit the legacy persisted. Some families, it is said, still have the keys to their nay longer existent ancient houses in Cordoba and Seville. Today, in mosques from Mecca to Tehran, imams remain to invoke the memory of Andalusia in Friday prayers reminding their flocks of exceeding glories and the humiliation Muslims accept endured at the hands of theinfidels.

But it is a fit scapegoat for their own shortcomings.

Nevertheless, the cessation of the Andalusian Empire has none been forgotten by Arabia. For al-Qaeda and ISIS, its re-establishment is seen as the fulfillment of the determine of Allah and as “holy retribution” to the descendants of those who conquered and destroyed Al Andalus.9

To the root Islamists, President Obama is simply another infidel in a lingering line of infidels – from the Byzantine emperors of Constantinople, to the Holy Roman Emperors, to Queen Victoria, and to other European imperialists – who depict mere impediments to the divinely ordained expanse of Islam. “Interference” with the be disposed of Allah, they believe, cannot tarry the restoration of their new caliphate.

But those who succor radical Islam fail to appreciate in what way Andalusian society achieved its greatness.

In their intensity to exact revenge and to chastise infidels for past transgressions (real or imagined), these original Islamists have placed their faith in ~y interpretation of Islam that renders sufferance, independent thought, debate and all creative, according to principles experimentation heresy unless carried out solely by reason of the purpose of waging jihad (religious war) against the perceived enemies of Islam.

Bernard Lewis, professor emeritus of Princeton University and the ruling Western scholar on Islamic history argued through some merit that the success of Muhammad in establishing not entirely the Muslim religion, but also a case dominated by that faith (Islam has even now to separate church from state) created a body that was and remains in its nature totalitarian, “bound by rules and strictures that pass over it too static to adapt and be rivals with a West (that) does not require control over the political and housekeeping spheres.”10

As a rise, the radical Islamists of today are caught in a self-imposed holy prison to which al-Sisi referred in his harangue at Al-Azhar. The genus of society that produced Andalusia – unit that encouraged scholarship through the study of system of knowledge, learning, independent thought, debate and disputation – represents the very antithesis of the character of society radical Islamists seek to pass off on the world by force and endurance. If Taliban Afghanistan and ISIS in Iraq and Syria are the most judicious they can do, it is a remoter cry from the glories of their farther than.

As Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi declared in his New Year’s Day talk to Egypt’s imam scholars – on the outside of an Islamic religious (and intellectual) rectification, restoring the dignity of the Islamic earth will fail.

ENDNOTES

1.  Paul Crawford, “Crusades: Political and Military Background,” ORB Online Encyclopedia, 1997.

2.  Lawrence Wright, “The Terror Web – Were the Madrid bombings sub-division of a new, far-reaching jihad inmost nature plotted on the Internet?” The New Yorker, August 2, 2004.

3.  Moorish Spain practiced d’himmitude, which saw Islamic rulers require tens of millions of non-Muslim peoples treated in the same proportion that second-class citizens as they are required to be treated by the Quran.  Jews and Christians were tolerated in the state Islam provided that they paid a pay or head tax (jizya) and accepted Islamic nobility. They had no right whatsoever to every independent existence and could live inferior to Islamic rule so long as they kept to the rules that Islam had promulgated as being them. Great injustices often flowed from this standing. The works of Bat Ye’or, the world’s most advanced authority ond’himmitude are the rudimental writings on this subject.

4. Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong: Western Impact and Middle East Response (Oxford University Press, 2002).

5. James Burke, The Day the Universe Changed, (Boston: Little Brown & Company, 1985) p. 37-38; See in addition: Dean Derhak, Muslim Spain and European Culture.”

6. Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong, op. cit.

7.  James Burke, The Day the Universe Changed,  op. cit. 1985 p. 42.

8.  Dr. K. Ajram, “Setting the Record Straight: The Miracle of Islamic Science,” Appendix B, 1992; Paul J. Balles, “Arabs (Muslims): Illusion and Reality;” visit also: Islamic Civilization E-Book, http://cyberistan.org/ebook1.htm

9.  Reuel Marc Gerecht, “Holy War in Europe,” American Enterprise Institute, April 7, 2004; Ron Fraser, “The Spanish Connection,” theTrumpet.com, May 2004;  DEBKA reckoner-intelligence sources (from December 2002) report that three months before the US invading. see the verb of Iraq, al Qaeda began issuing a shed of fatwas designating its main operating theatres in Europe. All are designed to indemnification what they perceive as historical injustices including the privation of Andalusia. Turkey topped their “hit” think proper followed by Spain. Italy and its fatal Rome were next. Muslim fundamentalists witness Rome as a “world center of unsound doctrine because of the Vatican and the Pope.” Finally, there was Vienna because “the advancing Muslim armies were defeated in that place in 1683 before they could engulf the heart of Europe.”  On November 3, 2003, Turkey sententious precept two terrorist outbreaks in Istanbul that claimed 63 lives and injured else than 600.  Islamic fundamentalists assert that these acts were committed to “be reinstated the honor and glory of the Ottoman caliphates that were trampled ~ the agency of Christian forces in 1917 in the latest days of World War I.”  On March 11, 2004, Spain followed by over 200 dead and 1,500 injured at what time al Qaeda stuck at Madrid’s commuter rail a whole .  In their mind, they are individual step closer to restoring their Andalusian supreme dominion. To the world, the goal of restoring Andalusia is fantasy. To the followers of al Qaeda and ISIS, it is not to be escaped. Their religious edicts dictate the “liberation” (through terrorism) of all lands once below Muslim rule, and the plan of conquest spans the oceans to America viewed like well.

10. Bernard Lewis, The Crisis in Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror (NY: Random House, 2003); Dennis Mullin, “Call it ~ means of any other name, it still adds up to a crusade,” The Washington Post, January 5, 2003; Review through La Shawn Barber, Townhall.com, 2005.

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